Friday, January 9, 2009

Short Essay: The Rhetoric of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.


Click here to read and hear (with headphones) Dr. King's "I Have a Dream" speech. Then click here to read his famous "Letter From Birmingham Jail". Familiarize yourself with the following rhetorical terms and note their presence as you read:

Argument: An attempt to persuade.

Authorial Intent: The intention of the work is its plan, its purpose. By observing carefully the author's choice of language, organization and content, we may determine the end toward which the author is working.

Intended Audience: The preferred audience, the audience for whom ideas are modified, language is constructed, and positions are modified.

Logos: Argumentation appealing to the logic or reason of the intended audience.

Ethos: Refers to the character or personal appeal of the author. "Trust me, I won't mislead you."

Pathos: Refers to feelings, either sympathetic or antagonistic, provoked in the audience.


Note these terms as they appear in the selected readings. Construct an essay which compares and contrasts Dr. King's writing approach and his treatment of the aforementioned concerns for "I Have a Dream" and "Letter From Birmingham Jail".

13 comments:

Anonymous said...

These two pieces of writing are similar yet different. First off, the audiences or the people the writing is geared towards are different. The "I Have a Dream" speech is spoken to the Unites States as a whole, whites and blacks, common people and leaders. The Letter from a Birmingham Jail is spoken to other black clergy-men, or religious leaders. With this difference in audience brings a difference in tone and message. the main difference is the focus of the two pieces. The "I Have a Dream" speech is meant to protest discrimination and serve as closure for the march on Washington, as such, it was wrote with very strong words and like all of his works of literature very formal. The Letter From a Birmingham Jail addressed the black clergy-men who did not think what hes doing is right. He is basically defending what he is doing by explaining it.

The way in which he approaches the different audiences is different as well. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. uses the convincing technique known as ethos, which is the trust given to the speaker by the listener, more in the Letter From a Birmingham Jail than in the other piece. This is most likely because the audience in the letter are fellow black clergy-men who already know him and know of his character. The audience of the "I Have a Dream" speech is common people of America who may not be familiar with him or who he is. An example of ethos in the Letter from a Birmingham Jail is "We should never forget that everything Adolf Hitler did in Germany was "legal" and everything the Hungarian freedom fighters did in Hungary was "illegal." It was "illegal" to aid and comfort a Jew in Hitler's Germany. Even so, I am sure that, had I lived in Germany at the time, I would have aided and comforted my Jewish brothers. If today I lived in a Communist country where certain principles dear to the Christian faith are suppressed, I would openly advocate disobeying that country's antireligious laws." This is an example of showing off his character.

Other ways that the two vary are in the other techniques of convincing that Dr. King uses. One of these is the technique known as pathos. This technique uses the feelings of the audience and manipulates them so that the audience is convinced of the writer’s way. Dr. King uses this technique in the I have a dream speech more so, but still does use it in the letter from a Birmingham jail. Dr. King used this technique to instill a heart in the people who do not necessarily have a heart when it came to the issue of discrimination and racism.

The other technique it called logos, and is the logistical approach to convincing someone. This method uses facts and real things to convince the audience to concede with the authors ideas. Dr. King uses this approach primarily in the I have a dream speech such as in this quote, “In a sense we've come to our nation's capital to cash a check. When the architects of our republic wrote the magnificent words of the Constitution and the Declaration of Independence, they were signing a promissory note to which every American was to fall heir. This note was a promise that all men, yes, black men as well as white men, would be guaranteed the "unalienable Rights" of "Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness." It is obvious today that America has defaulted on this promissory note, insofar as her citizens of color are concerned. Instead of honoring this sacred obligation, America has given the Negro people a bad check, a check which has come back marked "insufficient funds." This shows that the constitution which is the law of America guarantees rights to all citizens regardless of color and that America should change its way until that idea is met.


Seamus Slattery

Anonymous said...

Katie Kolodziejczyk

---------------------------

Martin Luther King Jr. was a civil rights activist who believed everyone including race and religion should be created equal. Both his “I Have a Dream Street” speech and his letter from “Birmingham Jail” reflect his persuasive skills. Dr. King uses the rhetorical terms of logos, ethos and pathos.
Martin Luther King Jr. uses the technique of pathos in his “I Have a Dream” speech to refer to the sympathetic feelings he provokes to the audience. An example of pathos Jr. created in his speech is; “we can never be satisfied as long as our bodies, heavy with the fatigue of travel, cannot gain lodging in the motels of the highways and the hotels of the cities. We can never be satisfied as long as our children are stripped of their self-hood and robbed of their dignity by signs stating ; “For Whites Only”. This quote will preferable target and touch the audience of all colors with its blunt and cold-hearted truths. A very well known example where pathos is shown is when Martin Luther King states “I Have a Dream that my four children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character”. This quote explains his feelings as brokenhearted but also containing hope. His audience he hopes will agree with his example of people not being treating or created equally and is being foreshadowed in the fallowing generation.
Although there are many examples of pathos in the famous speech “I Have a Dream” the “Letter from a Birmingham Jail” consist of a wide variety of techniques knows as logos, ethos and pathos. A statement in the letter that is an example of logos is “We should never forget that everything Adolf Hitler did in Germany was “legal” and everything the Hungarian freedom fighters did in Hungarian was “illegal”. It was illegal to aid and comfort a Jew in Hitler’s Germany”. This demonstration shows the logic and reason of the intended audience. Another technique M.L.K Jr. portrayed and used in his letter was ethos. He states “But since I feel that you are men of genuine good will and that your criticism are sincerely set forth, I want to try to answer your statement in what I hope will be patient and reasonable terms.” This quote determines his character and personal appeal, as oppose to the pathos in the “I have a Dream Speech” there is less in the “Birmingham Jail Letter”. The feelings of sympathetic fact was stated as; “Injustice anywhere is a threat to justice everywhere. We are caught in an inescapable network of mutuality, tied in a single garment of destiny. Whatever affects one directly, affects all indirectly.”
Being a civil rights activist, Martin Luther King Jr. faced a lot of difficult time and conquered the inevitable. His courage, wisdom and beliefs brought hope to non believers. Also his impressive techniques that he uses such as logos, pathos and ethos showed his intelligence and ability to take action for what was then an idea, and now a reality.

Anonymous said...

Every writer, speaker, and influential person has used different tactics to make their word have a powerful impact on their audience. Three tools that are commonly used are logos, ethos, and pathos. Logos is based on facts, and having true facts always gives the audience a reassuring feeling. The second thing, ethos, humanizes the author or speaker. It lets the reader or listeners relate to the author. The last one, pathos, is anything that allows the audience of the writer or speaker to feel strong emotions. A combination of these three, results in memorable work. One man who mastered the use of all three of these tactics was no other than Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Two of his most popular works were his “Letter from Birmingham Jail“, and the one every one knows is his eternally popular “I have a Dream” speech.
Throughout Dr. Martin Luther King’s “Letter to Birmingham Jail”, he successfully demonstrates how effective logos, ethos, and pathos can be. A strong example of logos is when he is describing some things he has done and accomplished. He says, “I have the honor of serving as president of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, an organization operating in every southern state, with headquarters in Atlanta, Georgia. We have some eighty five affiliated organizations across the South, and one of them is the Alabama Christian Movement for Human Rights.” Ethos was also used in the very first paragraph he writes, “While confined here in the Birmingham city jail, I came across your recent statement calling my present activities "unwise and untimely." Seldom do I pause to answer criticism of my work and ideas. If I sought to answer all the criticisms that cross my desk, my secretaries would have little time for anything other than such correspondence in the course of the day, and I would have no time for constructive work. But since I feel that you are men of genuine good will and that your criticisms are sincerely set forth, I want to try to answer your statement in what I hope will be patient and reasonable terms.” This makes him seem like a patient man that cares. This appeals to many readers because it makes him seem human, and that in return makes them have a stronger connection to the author. Using two of this tools is impressive, but Martin Luther King steps it up and manages to practices all three. He reaches out to the readers using pathos and drawing emotion out of them. He states “We have waited for more than 340 years for our constitutional and God given rights. The nations of Asia and Africa are moving with jet like speed toward gaining political independence, but we still creep at horse and buggy pace toward gaining a cup of coffee at a lunch counter. Perhaps it is easy for those who have never felt the stinging darts of segregation to say, "Wait." But when you have seen vicious mobs lynch your mothers and fathers at will and drown your sisters and brothers at whim; when you have seen hate filled policemen curse, kick and even kill your black brothers and sisters . . “, this brings great turmoil in people as they fill with several different emotions. Displaying logos, ethos, and pathos in this particular letter made it more formidable to its recipient.
Martin Luther King had more talents than being a skilled writer, he was a phenomenal public speaker. All three for these great literary enhancers are present in his speaking as well as his writing. Right from the beginning of his “I have a Dream” speech was example of logos. He starts right off the bat by saying “Five score years ago, a great American, in whose symbolic shadow we stand today, signed the Emancipation Proclamation.” Which is very true, it was a crucial point in American history. He also has a way of combining two tools into one example to make his words stand out even more. For an example of ethos and pathos is when he passionately said “I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed: "We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal." “ He proved his human like qualities by saying “I have a dream”, this was a mutual dream of many African Americans. And because it was desperately wanted by hundreds of people, when he spoke those words everyone felt some form of emotion. And these are some of the most touching every spoken in American history.
The ability to fit all of these tool, logos, pathos, and ethos, into your writing and speaking is a skill that can only be mastered with time and experience. The effects of your words are worth the time and effort. Martin Luther King reached out to many people. White, blacks, Jews, Catholics, men, women, and children all were touched but his words. All of America and most of the world were also touched but the things he said and did. One of the main reasons he successfully reached out to people was because he understood the meaning of how influential these simple literary device can improve your work dramatically if used correctly.

- Michelle Kilburn

Anonymous said...

In both the “I have a Dream Speech” and the “Letter From Birmingham Jail” Martin Luther King Jr. uses multiple rhetorical terms some of these terms being, logos, ethos, and pathos.

To begin with, the “I Have a Dream Speech” was written to be spoken in front of a very large audience to get his message across. The “Letter From Birmingham Jail” was written to other “clergymen” in response to criticism he receives for his tactics.

Some example of logos in the “I Have a Dream Speech” are; “Five score years ago, a great American, in whose symbolic shadow we stand today, signed the Emancipation Proclamation.” It was signed by Abraham Lincoln demanding all of the African American Slaves to be set free. Another is “But one hundred years later, the Negro still is not free” Though they where no longer slaves, they still did not have equal rights as whites.
Examples from “Letter From Birmingham Jail” would be; They have languished in filthy, roach infested jails, suffering the abuse and brutality of policemen who view them as "dirty nigger-lovers. Blacks had to suffer through various problems, such as police brutality, and false arrest for years following the Emancipation Proclamation. We have waited for more than 340 years for our constitutional and God given rights. The blacks had very limited rights at the time of his writing.

Examples of ethos in the “I Have a Dream Speech” are; each time he states “I have a dream” their opinion, even though they all came to be. “I am happy to join with you today in what will go down in history as the greatest demonstration for freedom in the history of our nation.” Though it probably is the greatest demonstration for freedom at the time it was of his opinion. “It would be fatal for the nation to overlook the urgency of the moment” would be another.
Examples in the “Letter From Birmingham Jail” are; “If I sought to answer all the criticisms that cross my desk, my secretaries would have little time for anything other” he’s talking about all of the criticism he receives for his actions.

Examples of pathos in the “I Have a Dream Speech” are; “In a sense we've come to our nation's capital to cash a check.” and “But we refuse to believe that the bank of justice is bankrupt.” These statements are trying to provoke some sort of emotion from his listeners.
Examples in the “Letter From Birmingham Jail” are; “We know through painful experience that freedom is never voluntarily given by the oppressor; it must be demanded by the oppressed.” Is also meant to express some sort of emotion.

Sean H

Anonymous said...

Crystal Stott
1/14/19
Two famous writings from Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. are “I had a dream” and “Letter from Birmingham Jail.”
In the reading of “I had a dream” by Martin Luther King Jr. Martin Luther King Jr. uses persuasive techniques when he says “one hundred years later, the negro is still not free”. This is a logical message because he is telling you how the whites will not let slavery just end. There are still many of slaves after one hundred years is what he is saying. Also in the Letter from Birmingham Jail he says “but it is even more unfortunate that all the city’s white power structure left the Negro community with no alternative”. This logic statement means that there is nothing left that the blacks can do because the whites are over ruling everything.
In the speech “I had a dream” Martin Luther King Jr. says “It would be fatal for the nation to overlook the urgency of the moment”. This is trustful because he is telling you that he wants to help the nation. Also, another quote is “any law that degrades human personality is unjust”. This quote is telling you that if there is any law that despises you it’s not worthy to listen to you. Basically he wants everyone to be equal that’s what this quote is trying to tell us.
In the speech “now is the time to make justice a reality for all of God’s children”. He is saying that everyone in the world deserves to get a chance. Another quote is “to the light of human conscience and the air of the national opinion before it can be cured”. Martin Luther King Jr. is telling you that if the white’s world just give the blacks a chance he will show you they are not that different. The only difference is the color of there skin nothing else.

Anonymous said...

Crystal Stott
1/14/19
Two famous writings from Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. are “I had a dream” and “Letter from Birmingham Jail.”
In the reading of “I had a dream” by Martin Luther King Jr. Martin Luther King Jr. uses persuasive techniques when he says “one hundred years later, the negro is still not free”. This is a logical message because he is telling you how the whites will not let slavery just end. There are still many of slaves after one hundred years is what he is saying. Also in the Letter from Birmingham Jail he says “but it is even more unfortunate that all the city’s white power structure left the Negro community with no alternative”. This logic statement means that there is nothing left that the blacks can do because the whites are over ruling everything.
In the speech “I had a dream” Martin Luther King Jr. says “It would be fatal for the nation to overlook the urgency of the moment”. This is trustful because he is telling you that he wants to help the nation. Also, another quote is “any law that degrades human personality is unjust”. This quote is telling you that if there is any law that despises you it’s not worthy to listen to you. Basically he wants everyone to be equal that’s what this quote is trying to tell us.
In the speech “now is the time to make justice a reality for all of God’s children”. He is saying that everyone in the world deserves to get a chance. Another quote is “to the light of human conscience and the air of the national opinion before it can be cured”. Martin Luther King Jr. is telling you that if the white’s world just give the blacks a chance he will show you they are not that different. The only difference is the color of there skin nothing else.

Anonymous said...

Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. was one of the biggest leaders in the civil rights movement. Both his letter from “Birmingham Jail” and his “I Have a Dream” speech show how smart and persuasive he was. Throughout his letter and speech he used terms of logos, pathos, and ethos.
Martin Luther King Jr. uses the technique of pathos in his “I Have a Dream” speech to refer to the feelings of his audience. An example of pathos created in his speech is; “we can never be satisfied as long as our bodies, heavy with the fatigue of travel, cannot gain lodging in the motels of the highways and the hotels of the cities.” This quote is showing what the blacks have been through and that it should affect the white people and stop doing it. An example of pathos in the “I Have a Dream” speech is when he says “I have a dream that one day every valley shall be exalted, and every hill and mountain shall be made low, the rough places will be made plain, and the crooked places will be made straight.” What he’s saying is that he hopes one day they will be considered equal to the whites.
He also uses Ethos to show that he is a good guy and to show he is not going to get mad at their criticism. He shows this in his letter when he says “But since I feel that you are men of genuine good will and that your criticism are sincerely set forth, I want to try to answer your statement in what I hope will be patient and reasonable terms.” He also uses it in his speech by when he says “But we refuse to believe that the bank of justice is bankrupt. We refuse to believe that there are insufficient funds in the great vaults of opportunity of this nation.” He is saying he is mad but not showing his anger.
Finally he uses logos to show how they’ve been treated and how bad it has been. One example of logos in his letter was when he said “So I, along with several members of my staff, am here because I was invited here. I am here because I have organizational ties here.” He’s saying that he is there to help them and that he wants to be there. When in actuality he was arrested. He went through very hard times throughout his protesting and throughout his life. In his speeches he used pathos, logos, and ethos to show his intelligence and to show the world the blacks struggles.


Joe Alberico

Anonymous said...

Elizabeth Estremera




"I Have a Dream"

In Martin Luther King Jr.'s speech "I Have a Dream" the authorial intent is to encourage oppressed African Americans to rise up and take action. The intended audience is African Americans in the south struggling with racism. One example of Logos in MLK's speech is the very beginning when he states "Five score years ago, a great American, in whose symbolic shadow we stand today, signed the Emancipation Proclamation. This momentous decree came as a great beacon light of hope to millions of Negro slaves who had been seared in the flames of withering injustice. It came as a joyous daybreak to end the long night of their captivity. But one hundred years later, the Negro still is not free. One hundred years later, the life of the Negro is still sadly crippled by the manacles of segregation and the chains of discrimination." This is an example of Logos because it is a true statement that appeals to logic. It was true that 100 years after the emancipation proclamation had been signed, and that it was supposed to end all slavery and discrimination. It is also true that that is not what happened and segregation was proof of that. One example of Ethos is when Dr. Martin Luther King states "But there is something that I must say to my people, who stand on the warm threshold which leads into the palace of justice: In the process of gaining our rightful place, we must not be guilty of wrongful deeds. Let us not seek to satisfy our thirst for freedom by drinking from the cup of bitterness and hatred." This is an example of Ethos because not only does he refer to the audience as "my people" which show invokes a feeling of comrodary, he is also saying that he wants the African American race to stay pure in the face of evil, in a corrupted world. This show dignity and compassion. One example of Pathos is when MLK says "I have a dream that one day on the red hills of Georgia, the sons of former slaves and the sons of former slave owners will be able to sit down together at the table of brotherhood." This is an example of Pathos because it makes the audience feel longing for that day when there can be peace and love and brotherhood between all people and all races.





In Martin Luther King Jr.'s speech "Letter from a Birmingham Jail" the authorial intent is for him to make the people who put him in jail see his point of view while also keeping his cool. The intended audience is not only the white men who put him in jail, but all white people who do not understand what he is trying to accomplish. One example of how he uses Logos on his argument is when he says "Several months ago the affiliate here in Birmingham asked us to be on call to engage in a nonviolent direct action program if such were deemed necessary. We readily consented, and when the hour came we lived up to our promise. So I, along with several members of my staff, am here because I was invited here. I am here because I have organizational ties here." This is an example of Logos because it is factual and it appeals to a sense of reason for the intended. It is very straight forward and clear. One example of Ethos is when MLK states "I hope you are able to see the distinction I am trying to point out. In no sense do I advocate evading or defying the law, as would the rabid segregationist. That would lead to anarchy. One who breaks an unjust law must do so openly, lovingly, and with a willingness to accept the penalty. I submit that an individual who breaks a law that conscience tells him is unjust, and who willingly accepts the penalty of imprisonment in order to arouse the conscience of the community over its injustice, is in reality expressing the highest respect for law." This is an example of Ethos because, for the intended audience, it shows personal appeal and trust because it shows he has respect for their laws even though they have no respect for him and his people and his race and his freedom. One example of Pathos in Martin Luther King Jr's speech is when he says "The yearning for freedom eventually manifests itself, and that is what has happened to the American Negro. Something within has reminded him of his birthright of freedom, and something without has reminded him that it can be gained. Consciously or unconsciously, he has been caught up by the Zeitgeist, and with his black brothers of Africa and his brown and yellow brothers of Asia, South America and the Caribbean, the United States Negro is moving with a sense of great urgency toward the promised land of racial justice." This is an example of Pathos because it refers to the feeling of urgency and inequality. It should make the intended audience understand how they feel they have a right to freedom and that they are being denied their rights and they can no hold back any longer. It should make the intended audience sympathetic.

Chris Anderson said...

Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. had a goal of addressing the American public with the issues of racial inequality. His famous “I Have a Dream” speech and “Letter from Birmingham Jail” are both two forms of how he addressed his point. His words are filled with rhetorical objects such as ‘Logos’, ‘Ethos’ and ‘Pathos’. ‘Logos’ are argumentations that are solely logic. ‘Pathos’ are argumentations that strengthen the argument by crediting the author. ‘Ethos’ are argumentation geared to create an emotional connection to the audience.
To begin, King’s “I have a Dream” speech contains rhetorical elements. King references the involvement of Abraham Lincoln in slavery. He makes a point, “One hundred years later, the negro is still not free”. This is an example of logos; it is completely true. “When the architects of our republic wrote the magnificent words of the Constitution and the Declaration of Independence, they were signing a promissory note to which every American was to fall heir. This note was a promise that all men, yes, black men as well as white men, would be guaranteed the ‘unalienable rights’ of ‘life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness’”. This reference is an example of logos as it is accurately based of history. “I am not unmindful that some of you have come here out of great trials and tribulations” is one of King’s usages of ethos in his speech. By mentioning that he is not ‘unmindful’ one gets the idea that he is knowledgeable of problems that other African Americans are confronted with. Since he is familiar with these issues then his words are stronger then if he was not. “I have a dream that one day every valley shall be exalted, and every hill and mountain shall be made low, the rough places will be made plain, and the crooked places will be made straight”. King’s ‘dream’ is an example of pathos because you can imagine what he is saying and you are touched emotionally.
King’s “Letter from a Birmingham Jail” features rhetorical elements also. “There is no gainsaying the fact that racial injustice engulfs this community. Birmingham is probably the most thoroughly segregated city in the United States. Its ugly record of brutality is widely known. Negroes have experienced grossly unjust treatment in the courts. There have been more unsolved bombings of Negro homes and churches in Birmingham than in any other city in the nation. These are the hard, brutal facts of the case” is an example of logos in the famous letter. The fact that Birmingham is the worst city in terms of segregation is solid. “If I sought to answer all the criticisms that cross my desk, my secretary would have little time for anything other than such correspondence in the course of the day, and I would have no time for constructive work. But since I feel that you are men of genuine good will and that your criticisms are sincerely set forth, I want to try to answer your statement in what I hope will be patient and reasonable terms”. This is an incorporation of ethos. When he mentions how he is taking time to answer a question that he would otherwise ignore, he earns a lot of respect. He is honest, genuine, and his argument is strong. “We know through painful experience that freedom is never voluntarily given by the oppressor; it must be demanded by the oppressed. Frankly, I have yet to engage in a direct action campaign that was ‘well timed’ in the view of those who have not suffered unduly from the disease of segregation. For years now I have heard the word ‘want!’ It rings in the ear of every Negro with piercing familiarity. This ‘want’ has almost always meant ‘never’. We must come to see, with one of our distinguished justice, that ‘justice too long delayed is justice denied’”. This is an example of pathos. Reading this, one feels apathetic of the injustices suffered by African Americans at this time.
Martin Luther King Jr. uses rhetorical argumentation to support his effort. This usage of logos, ethos, and pathos creates a sense of apathy and makes known the validity of the argument. The incorporation of all these styles combine to make a very strong argument.

Anonymous said...

Eric Brown Says
Many thought then that their was no way that blacks and whites would ever blend as one. Martin Luther King Jr. was a civil rights activist who believed everyone including race and religion should be created equal, then after Dr.King came along he brought a whole new world for those who struggle as a slave and those who wanted diversity to happen. Both his “I Have a Dream Street” speech and his letter from “Birmingham Jail” reflect his great writing abilities and his persuasive skills. Dr. King uses the rhetorical terms of logos, ethos and much more that changed the future.
Although there are many examples of pathos in the famous speech “I Have a Dream” the “Letter from a Birmingham Jail” consist of a wide variety of techniques knows as logos, ethos and pathos. A statement in the letter that is an example of logos is “We should never forget that everything Adolf Hitler did in Germany was “legal” and everything the Hungarian freedom fighters did in Hungarian was “illegal”. It was illegal to aid and comfort a Jew in Hitler’s Germany”. This demonstration shows the logic and reason of the intended audience. It gave the crowd he wanted to hear this another example of other people who struggle just like them but still over came. They all thought they would not get peace at one time or another but now are equal as well.
Another technique King portrayed and used in his letter was ethos. He states “But since I feel that you are men of genuine good will and that your criticism are sincerely set forth, I want to try to answer your statement in what I hope will be patient and reasonable terms.” This quote determines his whole character and personal appearance. As oppose to the pathos in the “I have a Dream Speech” there is less in the “Birmingham Jail Letter”. The feelings of sympathetic fact was stated as; “Injustice anywhere is a threat to justice everywhere. We are caught in an inescapable network of mutuality, tied in a single garment of destiny. Whatever affects one directly, affects all indirectly.”
Martin Luther King Jr. in his “I Have a Dream” speech uses the technique of pathos to refer to the sympathetic feelings he provokes to the audience which wishes for change. One of the ways he used the pathos is Dr. King created a speech which stated; “we can never be satisfied as long as our bodies, heavy with the fatigue of travel, cannot gain lodging in the motels of the highways and the hotels of the cities. We can never be satisfied as long as our children are stripped of their self-hood and robbed of their dignity by signs stating ; “For Whites Only”. When reading this quote you get a chill that runs down your spine that spoke to the preferable target and touch the audience of all colors with its blunt and cold-hearted truths. A very well known example where pathos is shown is when Martin Luther King states “I Have a Dream that my four children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character”. This quote explains his feelings as brokenhearted but also gives everyone he has touched with his speech hope. He felt his audience would agree with his example of people not being treating or created equally. Thus far, foreshadowing in the following generation of people who wanted this as much as he did.
When you think of civil rights or anything doing with racism you think back to how it all got changed in the first place. This then brings you to the man who is reasonable for no slaves, diversity, and equal between all Americans. Being a civil rights activist, Martin Luther King Jr. faced a lot of difficult time and conquered the impossible. He had many traits that made him so great which were his courage, wisdom and beliefs that brought hope to non believers. Also his impressive techniques that he uses showed his intelligence and ability to take action for what was then a dream, but now a reality. As you can see King was more than an icon my a civil activist who changed America’s future in a plethora of ways.

Matt Reeves said...

Martin Luther King Jr. was a man who wanted nothing but peace and equality. In his “I Have a Dream” speech as well as his famous letter from the Birmingham jail Martin Luther King Jr. uses many rhetorical terms in them to make the letter and speech have deeper meaning.
In “Letter from a Birmingham Jail” Martin Luther King says “I think I should indicate why I am here in Birmingham since you have been influenced by the view which argues against “outsiders coming in.” He goes on to say that they shouldn’t be outsiders anyway because they all live in America, but he says because they are different that they are outsiders. He uses the ethos term to give the readers of his letter a sense of what he feels. He does this again throughout the letter as well as his speech. He allows the reader to understand his letter is an angry letter.
In his “I Have a Dream” speech King mentions that “…those who hoped that the Negro needed to blow off steam and will now be content will have a rude awakening if the nation returns to business as usual. And there will be neither rest nor tranquility in American until the Negro is granted his citizenship rights.” This leaves the reader with an intense feeling of determination. This passage was made to be an example of pathos on purpose to leave the readers with a taste of what the Civil Rights movement must have felt.

~Judy said...

Martin Luther King Jr. was a strong worker for civil rights for members of his race. He was a member of the executive committee of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, the leading organization of its kind in the nation. Early in December of 1955, he accepted the leadership of the first great Negro nonviolent demonstration of contemporary times in the U.S., the bus boycott described by Gunnar Jahn in his presentation speech in honor of the laureate. The boycott lasted 382 days!
In "I Have a Dream" by Martin Luther King Jr. along with a massive march of partners of his, marched on Washington D.C. for desegregation which prompted the 1964 Civil Rights Act. In 1950, the equality of man said in the Declaration of Independence, was far from reality. People of color-blacks, Hispanics and Asians were discriminated in many ways, openly and secretively. 1950 was a time of change in America. It was this year when the racial barriers began to decrease due to Supreme Court decisions, like Brown v. Board of Education and due to the increase in the activisms of blacks, fighting for equal rights. " I Have A Dream" by Martin Luther King Jr. Martin Luther Jr. says "I am not unmindful that some of you have come here out of great trials and tribulations.Go back to Mississippi, go back to Alabama, go back to South Carolina, go back to Georgia, go back to Louisiana, go back to the slums and ghettos of our northern cities, knowing that somehow this situation can and will be changed. Let us not wallow in the valley of despair. I say to you today, my friends, so even though we face the difficulties of today and tomorrow, I still have a dream. It is a dream deeply rooted in the American dream." Martin Luther King Jr. truly believes (ethos) that one day everyone in America will be all treated the same, no matter what race, nationality, or color that you are. We are all the same and all together as one. One can feel the emotion that Martin Luther King Jr. is feeling when he is delivering his speech all of the people that will listen and are willing to listen to what he has to say, the power, the compassion that he has for change. "I am happy to join with you today in what will go down in history as the greatest demonstration for freedom in the history of our nation.is obvious today that America has defaulted on this promissory note insofar as her citizens of color are concerned. Instead of honoring this sacred obligation, America has given the Negro people a bad check, a check which has come back marked "insufficient funds."


The "Letter from Birmingham Jail". On Good Friday in 1963, led by Martin Luther King Jr., followed by 53 blacks, marched into downtown Birmingham to protest the existing segregation laws. Everyone was then arrested. This caused the clergymen of that Southern town to compose a letter appealing to the black population to stop their demonstrations. This letter appeared in the Birmingham Newspaper. In response, Martin Luther King Jr.drafted a document that marked the turning point of the Civil Rights Movement and provide enduring inspiration to to the struggle for racial equality. Martin Luther King Jr's letter strived to justify the desperate need for nonviolent direct action. Nonviolent actions was a huge issue. There were many people that were not taking action that needed to. Those that had the power were not doing things that they should do to prevent discrimination towards blacks. “past promises have been broken by the politicians and merchants of Birmingham and now is the time to fulfill the natural right of all people to be treated equal”. Martin Luther King Jr. believed that now is the time for change and it cannot go on any longer. The choice of nothing being done and that it was his turn and his time to make a change. “Past promises have been broken by the politicians and merchants of Birmingham and now is the time to fulfill the natural right of all people to be treated equal”. “Conversely, one has a moral responsibility to disobey unjust laws. I would agree with St. Augustine that, an unjust law is no law at all”. In this quote, the reader can feel the pain that Marting Luther King Jr. is feeling when there is little to nothing being done to better the community. “In deep disappointment I have wept over the laxity of the church. There can be no deep disappointment where there in not deep love”. This is probably the most heartbreaking assertion King makes.

~Judy said...

Martin Luther King Jr. was a strong worker for civil rights for members of his race. He was a member of the executive committee of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, the leading organization of its kind in the nation. Early in December of 1955, he accepted the leadership of the first great Negro nonviolent demonstration of contemporary times in the U.S., the bus boycott described by Gunnar Jahn in his presentation speech in honor of the laureate. The boycott lasted 382 days!
In "I Have a Dream" by Martin Luther King Jr. along with a massive march of partners of his, marched on Washington D.C. for desegregation which prompted the 1964 Civil Rights Act. In 1950, the equality of man said in the Declaration of Independence, was far from reality. People of color-blacks, Hispanics and Asians were discriminated in many ways, openly and secretively. 1950 was a time of change in America. It was this year when the racial barriers began to decrease due to Supreme Court decisions, like Brown v. Board of Education and due to the increase in the activisms of blacks, fighting for equal rights. " I Have A Dream" by Martin Luther King Jr. Martin Luther Jr. says "I am not unmindful that some of you have come here out of great trials and tribulations.Go back to Mississippi, go back to Alabama, go back to South Carolina, go back to Georgia, go back to Louisiana, go back to the slums and ghettos of our northern cities, knowing that somehow this situation can and will be changed. Let us not wallow in the valley of despair. I say to you today, my friends, so even though we face the difficulties of today and tomorrow, I still have a dream. It is a dream deeply rooted in the American dream." Martin Luther King Jr. truly believes (ethos) that one day everyone in America will be all treated the same, no matter what race, nationality, or color that you are. We are all the same and all together as one. One can feel the emotion that Martin Luther King Jr. is feeling when he is delivering his speech all of the people that will listen and are willing to listen to what he has to say, the power, the compassion that he has for change. "I am happy to join with you today in what will go down in history as the greatest demonstration for freedom in the history of our nation.is obvious today that America has defaulted on this promissory note insofar as her citizens of color are concerned. Instead of honoring this sacred obligation, America has given the Negro people a bad check, a check which has come back marked "insufficient funds."


The "Letter from Birmingham Jail". On Good Friday in 1963, led by Martin Luther King Jr., followed by 53 blacks, marched into downtown Birmingham to protest the existing segregation laws. Everyone was then arrested. This caused the clergymen of that Southern town to compose a letter appealing to the black population to stop their demonstrations. This letter appeared in the Birmingham Newspaper. In response, Martin Luther King Jr.drafted a document that marked the turning point of the Civil Rights Movement and provide enduring inspiration to to the struggle for racial equality. Martin Luther King Jr's letter strived to justify the desperate need for nonviolent direct action. Nonviolent actions was a huge issue. There were many people that were not taking action that needed to. Those that had the power were not doing things that they should do to prevent discrimination towards blacks. “past promises have been broken by the politicians and merchants of Birmingham and now is the time to fulfill the natural right of all people to be treated equal”. Martin Luther King Jr. believed that now is the time for change and it cannot go on any longer. The choice of nothing being done and that it was his turn and his time to make a change. “Past promises have been broken by the politicians and merchants of Birmingham and now is the time to fulfill the natural right of all people to be treated equal”. “Conversely, one has a moral responsibility to disobey unjust laws. I would agree with St. Augustine that, an unjust law is no law at all”. In this quote, the reader can feel the pain that Marting Luther King Jr. is feeling when there is little to nothing being done to better the community. “In deep disappointment I have wept over the laxity of the church. There can be no deep disappointment where there in not deep love”. This is probably the most heartbreaking assertion King makes.