Tuesday, September 4, 2012

AP Literature: Beowulf & Chaucer


You will utilize this post to complete an online unit regarding Beowulf and Chaucer. As you complete your work, be sure to save it as a Word or Google Document. This unit will take some time, so be sure to work incrementally and manage your time well. Some students find it helpful to copy and paste this post onto their document for convenience. You will submit your completed unit (as a comment to this post) no later than midnight on Sunday, 9-16. Please be sure to identify which "part" is which. On Monday, I will print, read, and grade your work. Please post it all at once. You will be graded holistically on the + to - scale for 2 quizzes.

 
Click here to link to a full-text online translation of Beowulf. I do not expect you to read the entire work, but you must "sample" enough of it to get a feel for Old English and respond to the following:
B1. What is a caesura? Find an example of a caesura from the text and defend your selection (paragraph).
B2. What is kenning? Find 3 examples of kenning and defend your selections (paragraph).
B3. Beowulf is indicative of Old English and is infused with a curious blend of the traditions and values of Anglo-Saxon culture and the rise of Christianity. Do a bit of research regarding the Anglo-Saxons.  Quote and discuss passages from the text that represent this unique dynamic. Use MLA format to cite your sources.

For The Canterbury Tales,

C1: Click here to access the text. Read The Prologue and the Introduction in their entirety. Chaucer will introduce you to each of his pilgrims; choose 3 of them. Discuss how Chaucer characterizes them: their class, appearance, character, etc. (3 paragraphs).
C2: Click here to check out a dope rap version of The Prologue. Describe the attire of the MC's to verify your visit.
C3: Click here to hear an audio recording of The Prologue in Middle English. Describe the narrator's voice and your impressions regarding how pronunciation, accent and emphasis help you decode the passage. 
C4: Click here to access the Pardoner's Tale. Read his tale (lines 375-682).Write a 3-5 paragraph essay in response to the following prompt: How is the Pardoner's Tale, in relation to the Pardoner's persona and role, painfully ironic? How does this irony conflict or complement the irony within the Tale itself? How might you characterize Chaucer's tone as echoed through his juxtaposition of the Pardoner's story and personality? What might we conclude about Chaucer's attitude toward religion and morality?
C5: Click here to access a link to Hieronymous Bosch's painting "The Garden of Earthly Delights". Synthesis prompt: Bosch is a Dutch painter who lived and worked shortly after the publication of the Tales. You will be able to zoom in a bit. Examine the triptych and respond to the following questions in paragraph form. 1. What scenes are being depicted in each panel? 2. Create a conversation (RAFT style) between Chaucer and the Pardoner as they discuss the image (particularly the right panel). 

 


111 comments:

Rachel Anderson said...

Rachel Anderson (Part 1)

Part B1:
Caesura is poetic technique in which an author creates an oral pause in order to create a cadenced flow. Providing artistic beauty, rhythm is recognized as a vital component of poetry. In Beowulf, the author uses caesura several times to portray his message about the significance of defining oneself both ancestrally and individually. An example of caesura exists in the prelude when the author writes, “we have heard, and what honor the athelings won!” The caesura, marked by the comma, breaks up the phrase, and thus emphasizes both pieces of the phrase individually rather than as a whole. The author does so in order to draw attention to the concept of honor and its importance in society. Another example of caesura is presented in chapter 2, which reads, “he grasped betimes,/ wrathful, reckless, from resting-places.” The caesura in these lines serves a theatrical purpose, adding emotional impact to the words. It serves to emphasize the struggle of a journey to define oneself. The author uses caesura again in chapter 8 when he writes, “laid forlorn his life adown,/ his heathen soul,-and hell received it.” The caesura brings an exponential amount of passion and depth to this phrase, despite it brevity. The caesura in this line is marking a critical turning point in the story, as Beowulf characterizes himself as a brave and noble warrior. Without caesura, the author would be unable to successfully communicate and assert the theme of psychological self-definition.
Part B2:
Kenning is a literary technique in which an author uses a two-word phrase in a place where no one-word phrase is sufficient. Although the primary purpose of kenning is to compensate for linguistic deficiencies, kenning can also enrich a text. It grasps readers’ attention by using unfamiliar word combinations which beautify and augment the author’s diction. In chapter 3 of Beowulf, the author writes, “A stout wave-walker/he bade make ready.” In this line, the appellation “wave-walker” is used as a kenning for the term “ship,” accentuating and intensifying the imagery of the phrase. Kenning is used again in chapter 4 when the author writes, “To him the stateliest spake in answer;/the warriors' leader his word-hoard unlocked.” The term “word-hoard” is used to replace the word “brain,” and to deepen the sense of importance associated with the leader’s thoughts. Another example of kenning appears in chapter 13 when the author writes, “her blood was so hot,/so poisoned the hell-sprite who perished within/there.” The author captures readers’ attention by using the word “sprite,” which typically refers to an angel, to describe a “hell-sprite,” or demon. These uses of kennings in Beowulf appeal to readers by using familiar vocabulary in unexpected ways.

Rachel Anderson said...

Rachel Anderson (Part 1)

Part B1:
Caesura is poetic technique in which an author creates an oral pause in order to create a cadenced flow. Providing artistic beauty, rhythm is recognized as a vital component of poetry. In Beowulf, the author uses caesura several times to portray his message about the significance of defining oneself both ancestrally and individually. An example of caesura exists in the prelude when the author writes, “we have heard, and what honor the athelings won!” The caesura, marked by the comma, breaks up the phrase, and thus emphasizes both pieces of the phrase individually rather than as a whole. The author does so in order to draw attention to the concept of honor and its importance in society. Another example of caesura is presented in chapter 2, which reads, “he grasped betimes,/ wrathful, reckless, from resting-places.” The caesura in these lines serves a theatrical purpose, adding emotional impact to the words. It serves to emphasize the struggle of a journey to define oneself. The author uses caesura again in chapter 8 when he writes, “laid forlorn his life adown,/ his heathen soul,-and hell received it.” The caesura brings an exponential amount of passion and depth to this phrase, despite it brevity. The caesura in this line is marking a critical turning point in the story, as Beowulf characterizes himself as a brave and noble warrior. Without caesura, the author would be unable to successfully communicate and assert the theme of psychological self-definition.
Part B2:
Kenning is a literary technique in which an author uses a two-word phrase in a place where no one-word phrase is sufficient. Although the primary purpose of kenning is to compensate for linguistic deficiencies, kenning can also enrich a text. It grasps readers’ attention by using unfamiliar word combinations which beautify and augment the author’s diction. In chapter 3 of Beowulf, the author writes, “A stout wave-walker/he bade make ready.” In this line, the appellation “wave-walker” is used as a kenning for the term “ship,” accentuating and intensifying the imagery of the phrase. Kenning is used again in chapter 4 when the author writes, “To him the stateliest spake in answer;/the warriors' leader his word-hoard unlocked.” The term “word-hoard” is used to replace the word “brain,” and to deepen the sense of importance associated with the leader’s thoughts. Another example of kenning appears in chapter 13 when the author writes, “her blood was so hot,/so poisoned the hell-sprite who perished within/there.” The author captures readers’ attention by using the word “sprite,” which typically refers to an angel, to describe a “hell-sprite,” or demon. These uses of kennings in Beowulf appeal to readers by using familiar vocabulary in unexpected ways.

Rachel Anderson said...

Rachel Anderson (Part 2)

Part B3:
Throughout Beowulf, the author reflects Anglo-Saxon beliefs in the composition of his fictional society and characters. Mixing Paganism and Christianity, Anglo-Saxons value the presence of nature, the power of a warrior, and the importance of God. Like most Anglo-Saxon literature, Beowulf originated as an oral story, passed from parents to their posterity. The society depicted in the poem is reflective of a typical Anglo-Saxon kingdom, where kings ruled over their people and warriors were considered to be of utmost honor. “Warriors willing, should war draw nigh,/ liegemen loyal: by lauded deeds/ shall an earl have honor in every clan,” the author writes. The social organization of the kingdom depicted in Beowulf reflects the Anglo-Saxon belief in a carefully-defined hierarchy in which warriors and kings prevail. The kingdom is surrounded by magnificent landscapes which the author describes with vivid imagery. “By wolf-cliffs haunt they and windy headlands/, fenways fearful, where flows the stream/ from mountains gliding,” the author writes to describe a particular landscape. The incorporation of the environment into the poem reflects the Anglo-Saxon value toward nature derived from its Pagan roots. Another Anglo-Saxon belief which the author coalesces into the story is the concept of wyrd, or fate. The author writes, “For Wyrd hath swept them,/ all my line, to the land of doom,/ earls in their glory: I after them go.” The character’s ability to accept his own unfortunate fate lies within his strong Anglo-Saxon faith in God. Beowulf’s religious connotations are indicative of a distinctive time in history during which Pagan and Christian beliefs amalgamated to create unique Anglo-Saxon society.
Part C1:
Throughout the prologue to the Canterbury Tales, Chaucer introduces and typifies his characters through vivid descriptions of their clothing. The plowman, a middle-class hard-working man, wears a simple shirt and rides a horse. He exhibits an affable personality and an undeniable love for God, and he brings a sense of peace to the diverse group. The doctor is a more enigmatic character, presenting an ironic set of beliefs. He is depicted wearing bright red and blue clothes made of the most excellent silk. His success as a medical doctor is recognized world-wide, and he claims that he is led by the natural world, yet he also admits to prescribing unnecessary drugs in order to gain profit. Although he is a highly-respected individual, his morals are far from admirable, for his love for money trumps all other values. A third character, the prioress, wears a beautiful cloak, a well-ironed scarf, and a delicate rosary. She is well-mannered and traditional in her ways, yet facetiously conspicuous with her overwhelming emotions. These characters, as well as the others introduced in the prologue, serve as a vehicle for Chaucer’s message concerning the medieval class system.

Rachel Anderson said...

rachel Anderson (Part 3)

Part C2:
There are three MC’s is this enlightening video. The first is wearing a black shirt with white writing and a blue, gray, and white hat. The second is wearing a brown, striped collared shirt and a tan hat. The third is wearing a red t-shirt and sunglasses.
Part C3:
Although Middle English varies tremendously from the form of English currently spoken, it remains uncomplicated for the average English-speaker to decipher. The spelling of Middle English is startlingly difficult to interpret, but the pronunciation simplifies translation. Much of communication is based not on the tangible words but rather on the intonation, articulation, emphasis, and pitch of the speaker’s voice. When language first originated, there was no Merriam-Webster dictionary or MLA Grammar Handbook; instead, people relied solely upon variation in the speaker’s tone and context clues in order to decipher speech. In a similar manner, hearing a narrator’s smooth, deep voice pronounce Chaucer’s prologue allows listeners to better their understanding of the story.
Part C4:
Throughout history, religion and morality have played a vital role in shaping cultures and societies. Every government and law in existence is based upon the fundamental spiritual principles of those who obey it. The nature of basic human interactions is dictated by the consciousness of moral values. In The Canterbury Tales, Chaucer uses the ironic juxtaposition of the Pardoner’s tale and personality in order to criticize the disconnection between organized religion and the quintessence of morality.
In The Canterbury Tales, the Pardoner tells a principled tale of three ruffians who were killed as a result of their ignorance toward God. Throughout his tale, the Pardoner demonstrates his knowledge of religion by making several references to biblical stories. “O cursed sinne,/ ful of cursednesse!/ O traytours homicyde, o wikkednesse!/ O glotonye, luxurie, and hasardrye!/ Thou blasphemour of Crist with vileinye/ And othes grete, of usage and of pryde!” the Pardoner shouts in an attempt to claim that sin and trickery are roots of evil. Subsequential to making these claims, the Pardoner asks his listeners to provide him with money, jewelry, and other valuables in exchange for God’s forgiveness. To readers, the Pardoner’s request is immediately recognized as a scam, and the irony of the tale becomes obvious. The Pardoner’s associations with religion and church are accompanied by his deceitful and sinful personality. Chaucer is able to use the Pardoner in order to demonstrate the irony of the detachment between organized religion and true spirituality in society.
The Pardoner, a recognized church official authorized to excuse indulgences, serves as a symbol of organized religion during the Middle Ages. His position in society conflicts with his fallacious and nefarious personality. The dissolution of the Pardoner’s tale and personality and the ironic contrast between the Pardoner’s reputation and character makes it possible for Chaucer to use him as a vehicle for his message concerning the corruption of organized religion due to its severance from basic moral values.

Rachel Anderson said...

Rachel Anderson (Part 4)

Part C5:
Bosch’s triptych, “The Garden of Earthly Delights,” illustrates mankind’s gradual transition from purity to sin. The left panel displays the beginning of humanity, Adam and Eve’s first interaction. The scene is full of innate beauty, and the amalgamation of humans, animals, and nature provides a feeling of wholesomeness and euphoria. The central panel is nearly a continuation of the left panel, with matching horizons and similar color schemes, yet the tone is completely different. Depictions of humans taking pleasure in sin give the panel an ominous sense of doom. In the final panel, on the right, sin has overcome mankind. Dark colors and unrecognizable objects set the mood of the panel, intended to portray the inevitable downfall of mankind.
The Pardoner: Blaspheme those despicable sinners!
Chaucer: They are sinners, indeed.
The Pardoner: Sinners do deserve to live in a melancholy and deteriorating world until they are able to swallow their pride! They must pay their debts! They must pay their debts to the church, I say!
Chaucer: They must pay their debts! But not to the church, I fear. They must pay their debts to the Lord, the all-forgiving Redeemer.
The Pardoner: He redeems only those who support the church which builds the tabernacles for His worship. He redeems only those who sacrifice their riches for His forgiveness.
Chaucer: To whom are they sacrificing? To you?! For what reason do you deserve the riches of the sinners when you are a sinner yourself?!
The Pardoner: You shall not dare to call me a sinner! I am an authorized official of the church!
Chaucer: But you have sinned; have you not?
The Pardoner: I have paid my debts to the church; my sins have been pardoned!
Chaucer: Sir, I don’t believe you can pardon your own sins and con yourself out of your own money. Only a fool would do so.


WORKS CITED
"Beowulf." Beowulf EText. University of Virginia Library, 1998. Web. 16 Sept. 2012. .

Simpson, Fiona, and Geoffrey Chaucer. The Canterbury Tales. Parsippany, NJ: Globe Fearon/Pearson Learning Group, 1995. Print.

Kayla Lantos said...

Lantos B1.
A caesura is a break in the text. It may occur after many lines, comparable to a long paragraph. However, breaks in text can occur after as few as one word. On page eleven, two lines are followed by a caesura, the word "Cain's," then another caesura before and after the word "Giants." They were probably used to make the text easier and smoother to read.

B2. Kenning seems to mean "synonym." I came to this conclusion because the word is only found in footnotes which highlight strange words. For example, "earl's-defence" is described as a kenning for Beowulf. Similarly, the footnote for "relic-of-files" reveals that it is a "kenning for sword." Best of all, the kenning for the sun is "rapture-of-heaven."

021B3. Anglo-Saxons gathered in mead halls, such as the one named Heorot in Beowulf. It was a lively place- "dense was the throng of men and women the wine hall to cleanse." Another unique aspect of Anglo-Saxon culture that is evident in Beowulf is the groups of people that rely on a strong king to lead them in the defense against invasions.

C1:
Chaucer characterizes The Monk as a manly man who is a swift, enthusiastic hunter. He sees no value in mental or physical labor; riding horses and hunting are the things that bring him pleasure. His head is bald and anointed with oil, and he wears a pin made of gold, suggesting that he is not the poorest of monks. Plus, he is rich with furs from the animals he hunts.

The pardoner is a Roman man with smooth, yellow hair. The hair flows past his shiny eyes, down to his shoulders. His face is clean-shaven and his voice resembles a goat. In his knapsack he carried, along with pardons of course, a piece of Saint Peter's sail, a latten cross set full of stones, and a bottle filled with pig bones which he uses to scam money out of those who listen to his merry singing and preaching.

The physician is a medical doctor with a degree in astronomy. He used this natural science and his knowledge of astrological signs to cure his patients. In fact, he was so good at his job that he knew the cause of every illness. He was friends with and cured many famous men and loved gold above all, but he remained modest.

C2: One man is wearing a hat and black shirt, the other has a hat and a green shirt, and the third is wearing a red shirt and sunglasses.

C3: Honestly, it was not much easier to decipher when hearing it read aloud. The accent made it sound like a completely different language. A couple of words were easy to understand, for example I heard something that sounded like "breath." However, when I read the text to myself, I could take my time processing what letters were used and what word it resembled.

C4: The pardoner's Tale is filled with irony. The pardoner preaches to those who listen about the evils of greed. He denounces gluttony and fraud, all the while using fraudulent relics to extort money from people.

He seems to take pride in the greatness of his hypocrisy and corruption. No remorse is shown, and he shamelessly exploits God and his followers. The tone Chaucer creates is a bit comedic and condemning.

One may conclude that Chaucer is skeptical of organized religion. He certainly does nto seem to have faith in religious leaders. Perhaps he worshipped God, but it is not likely that he was lining up to put money in the collection basket at church.

C5: The link to the picture did not work; I received this error message:
Sorry.
The Squarespace account suziehemphill is not available. If you are the Site Owner for this account please login above.

Nicole Miller said...

Hey Mr, Kefor, it said my paper was too long so i emailed it to you.
Thanks! Nicole Miller

Taylor Saltmarsh said...

Taylor Saltmarsh



B1: A caesura is a literary term that means a break in a line of poetry that symbolizes a naturally spoken pause. Beowulf has many caesuras within it, an example would be “a winsome life, till one began to fashion evils”, because it makes the transition from describing a winsome life to describing the evils that soon followed. If one was to read this out loud to an audience, the caesuras would serve as a dramatic pause. This caesura in particular sets up the scene for a happy story, and makes the audience feel like everything is going good, until the speaker reveals, after a dramatic pause or a caesura, a sharp turn of events that is meant to catch the audience off guard.
B2: Kenning is a compound expression in Old English that uses two words to mean something else. In Beowulf there are many kennings that have many different meanings. The first is form line 10 “Whale-path”, which is supposed to mean ocean, if one were to think about this kenning it makes perfect sense, whales live in the ocean, and they travel to various different places in the ocean, so the ocean is a whale’s path. Another example of a kenning would be the “the Almighty”, which is supposed to mean God, because instead of just using one word for God it is describing God using two words. One final example is “sea wood”, which means ship, this is an example of a kenning because it describes that a ship is literally made of wood and floats on the sea.
B3: The Anglo-Saxons were a group of people who settled in Britain. Although Britain was part of the Roman Empire, the Anglo- Saxons did not follow the Roman Empire. The Romans called them ‘Barbarians’ because they did not follow the Christian Religion like the Roman Empire, and most of Britain did. The Anglo-Saxons followed numerous and various Gods as well as Goddesses. Beowulf is one of the most famous Anglo-Saxon stories of history. “In Anglo-Saxon culture and literature, to be a hero was to be a warrior” (Garcia). Anglo-Saxons had a strong belief in heroes and what it really means to be a hero. Beowulf is definitely a hero because he saves Hrothgar from the evils of Grendel. “But sit to the banquet, unbind thy words, hardy hero, as heart shall prompt thee." This is a quote from Beowulf that exemplifies the kind of admiration that Anglo-Saxons had for their heroes.
C1: The first pilgrim Chaucer introduces to the reader is the knight. Chaucer describes the knight as a chivalrous and noble man, and everything that you would expect a knight to be. In total Chaucer states that the knight has fought about 15 battles and won them all. He depicts the knight to be a humble hero with a lot of sadness inside, and the perfect gentle knight. Even though he has done many great things in his life he is not gay, which seems like the classic tale of someone who seems to have it all, yet are unhappy and want more out of life.
Chaucer then introduces the reader to the Knight’s son who is the squire. Chaucer emphasizes the squire’s physical appearance. He describes him as a youthful and handsome man, who long locks of hair, has great strength, a bachelor, and someone with many talents. Chaucer portrays the squire as someone who could do almost anything and everything and do everything perfectly. The squire seems like the ideal and perfect person, and yet with all these great attributes, he too is humble. Chaucer sates that the squire is about 20 years old.
The next character Chaucer introduces is the yeoman. The only servant that the knight brings with him on voyages and the yeoman is well-equipped with weapons. The yeoman has a bow and arrows, and a dagger. The yeoman has a sun damaged face and he knew wood crafting well. All the colors on the yeoman seem to be bright, like his cloak and arrows, except his face which is described as brown.

Taylor Saltmarsh said...

C2: There are three males rapping in the video. The first man is wearing a black shirt that has white writing on it that says “Maryknoll High School Japanese club 2005”, and he is also wearing a blue stripped hat. The second man is wearing a red shirt that says “Dr. Pepper”, and he is also wearing sun glasses. The third man is wearing a brown stripped button-up shirt, and he is also wearing a tan colored baseball hat.
C3: The narrator’s reading of the prologue is very hard to understand. He does not sound like he is speaking English at all. The language sounds more German with a lot of harsh sounds, and fewer vowels. It was hard to understand until I looked at the prologue and followed along with what the narrator was reading.
C4: The role of the Pardoner is the person who charges people money and then forgives them or pardons them of their sins. The Pardoner’s personality is very conflicting internally. He is committed to helping people wash away their sins, yet he is also very committed to scamming people into paying money in order to wash away their sins. In simple terms the Pardoner does not practice what he preaches. He tells his tale about the rioters who sinned in order to gain money as a way to try to open the eyes of his audience and make them see their own sins that they have committed themselves. But, by asking for money he is being very hypocritical, and going against the lessons he taught by telling his tale.
The Pardoner’s tale its self is trying to emphasize the dangers of greed, and what greed can drive people to so. It is highly ironic that the Pardoner himself is going against his tale and being greedy by charging people to forgive them of their sins. Greed turns people, even friends, against each other and can drive people to do extreme things. The tale itself tells of three rioters who find gold, and then turn against each other in order to keep the money for themselves, in the end they all end up dead. The pardoner is trying to convey to his audience the moral that greed is never a good thing, and that it never leads to good things.
Chaucer’s tone in the Pardoner’s tale is ironic and cynical. He is cynical because it is almost like dark humor that the Pardoner is supposed to uphold faith in people and forgive them of their sins and give them salvation. People go to him with faith that he will bring them these things, and he tells them his tale to show them the evils of greed. However, in the end he ends up being the most corrupt of them all,because he is feeding off their desperation and guilt by showing them the evils of greed and making them feel bad if they ever were greedy in life, and in the end he benefits from the situation and turns out to be the greediest of them all. Chaucer may have felt as if religion was corrupt and really had no morals. The church gave out indulgences, which were the selling of forgiveness of sins, and many people thought at the time that indulgences were immoral. Chaucer may be drawing a similar situation, and trying to convey how corrupt that system really is, and how religion can fool people into paying them money, which is extremely corrupt.

Taylor Saltmarsh said...

C5: 1: The far left panel is Adam and Eve, the middle panel is life on Earth with various humans, and the far right panel is the cost of feeding into temptations and this depicts hell or suffering form the choices that they made.
2: Chaucer: There are many temptations in life and almost everyone falls into the dangerous traps.
Pardoner: maybe if more people were informed and educated on the sins of mankind they could find salvation,
Chaucer: Salvation should not come at a cost though.
Pardoner: Well, one must either pay for their sins on Earth or pay for their sins in hell.
Chaucer: I just love this painting; it shows all the sides and points of view of mankind and religion in their entirety.
Pardoner: Yes, exactly from the fresh start of mankind, when there was no sin, to the afterlife where there is nothing but suffering because of sin. If only the people on the far right had known that they could easily pay for they sin to be pardoned.
Chaucer: Religion should not come from or be about money, after all greed is one temptation of life that ends in darkness. In the end everything ends up in corruption, humankind started off completely innocent and spiraled out of control, and it could be argued that religion my have had both positive and negative impacts on the society in this painting.

















Works Cited

BBC. Primary History. 2012. Web. 15 September 2012.

Garcia, Christopher. The Anglo-Saxon Hero. Garcia, Christopher, Web. 15 September 2012.

Moonwaves182 said...

Matthew Litchfield
September 16, 2012
AP Eng. Lit. IBI
Beowulf and Chaucer
Part 1

Beowulf
B1: A caesura is a brief pause in the middle of a line of poetry (“caesura”). Two examples of caesura in Beowulf are at the end of paragraph six (denoted as -6- in the reading): “a gold-wove banner; let billows take him, // gave him to ocean. Grave were their spirits, // mournful their mood. No man is able.” This passage includes two caesura because it has one sentence that starts and ends half way through a line. This use of a caesura creates a dramatic pause, which was probably included in the original oral presentation of the poem.

“Caesura.” Merriam-Webster. Merriam-Webster, Inc. , n.d. Web. 16 Sept. 2012. < http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/caesura>

B2: Kenning is the act of using two pieces of existing imagery to describe something that doesn’t yet have its own name. In Beowulf, one of the first kennings is “whale-path” from paragraph 5. “Whale-path” is used to describe the location of a king’s house: this suggests “whale-path” means the sea or ocean. Another kenning is the “breaker-of-rings”, which is described by the passages footnote as a king or chieftain. Further in the reading, the term “mead-houses” is described as the setting for a banquet in honor of Hrothgar. This is probably a kenning for a great hall or a brewery, or somewhere mead has been stored.

B3: In Beowulf there is a blend of Christian values and ancient Nordic and Anglo-Saxon beliefs. Christianity spread to Britain in the 9th century (Morris). Given the age of the oral myth of Beowulf, the influence of Christianity could be more greater than or less than that of older traditions, since it would have spread out from Britain. In paragraph six of given translation, there are several lines describing the creation story of Christianity followed by lines of poetry about Grendell, and “etins and elves and evil-spirits.” The concept of evil forces is not alien to Christianity – they would be considered demonic in other Christian cultures – but these creatures come directly from lingering Anglo-Saxon myth and legend.

Anglo-Saxon England. Morris, Time. “ENGL 4301: 501: History and Development of the English Language.” Arlington. Texas U, 1998. Web. 16 Sept. 20012.

Chaucer
C1:
The Squire:
The Squire is the son of the knight. He was a young man who had recently traveled with an expeditionary cavalry. He is a haughty bachelor looking to win the hand of a lady. Chaucer describes him very favorably, talking about his skill in jousting, his loyalty to his father in carving before him at the table, and his skill in writing. He is average sized and has curly locks.

The Friar:
The Friar is a traveling man named Hubert, who throughout the land has performed marriage ceremonies to young woman in need. He is well spoken and a gossip, but is also known for his kindness as in confession and absolution. He is a successful beggar among the friars, and invited no competition in it. He has a lisp, but it makes his English pleasant to all those listen to him.

The Miller:
The Miller is a strong man with a red beard and a thick frame. He always won at wrestling, and could lift a door from its hinges, or break them with his head. He wears a blue cape or coat, and is a good thief, who despite having been caught, has a large sum in his pocket. He always carries a sword and a buckler by his side.

Moonwaves182 said...

Matthew Litchfield
Part 2


C2: One MC is wearing a blue hat and a black shirt with a school name on it. Another MC is wearing a red Dr. Pepper shirt. The last MC is wearing a brown striped shirt.

C3: The speaker has a rhythm to his voice. It sounds like certain syllables roll, and there seems to be very little pause between words. His “s”s also seem more stressed than other sounds.

C4:
The Pardoner’s Tale is ironic because the Pardoner condemns greed but is himself greedy.He collects gold and silver for the church in order to absolve people of their sins, but these absolutions hold no weight and have been denounced by the church at large. The Pardoner is essentially telling his listeners to refrain from avarice while engaging actively in it: this is a hallmark example of hypocrisy. The original goal of trying to kill death further extends the irony because it suggests that avarice leads to death. While in medieval Christianity absolution was thought to absolve sin and extend Christ’s offer of eternal life, the act of giving absolution is actually as damnable as the murders described by the Pardoner.

The irony of the Pardoner’s role is not directly ironic to the irony of his tale. In the tale, the men seek to kill death, but end up killing themselves; the irony of the Pardoner is that he is hypocritical. The two ironies do not have the same pattern – they do not occur the same way. This disconnect between ironies is more conflicting than complementing; however, the irony of the Pardoner’s hypocrisy does unify his tale of the three men with Chaucer’s tale of the Pardoner.

Of the Pardoner, Chaucer speaks sarcastically. The Pardoner is supposed the represent to Church and Christianity, but Chaucer’s characterization of him is far from holy. Chaucer almost seems to call him insincere when he says: “So graunte yow his pardoun to receyve, \\ For that is best, I wol yow nat deceyve.” In relation to the Church, Chaucer seems to be saying that religion is (or can be) corrupt. Morality, on the other hand, seems to be the more of the flexible insincere aspect of religion in the eyes of Chaucer.


C5:

C5|1) The Garden of Earthly Delights portrays three visions of life. In the left pane, a naked man and a naked woman lay and kneel (respectively) beside a clothed figure. Beyond their spot on the hill are animals and statues. This pane may depict life before the Christian story of the Fall [from Grace], or life in heaven. In the middle pane, there are naked people everywhere, of both European and African descent. They are engaged in various activities, from conversation to recreation. This middle pane seems to depict life after the Fall, or life as we know it. The right pane is strikingly different from the left and middle panes. There are fires burning and people suffering. One man is being eaten by a bird like creature. This scene is the artist’s interpretation of life in hell.

C5|2) Dialogue between Chaucer and the Pardoner

Pardoner: Do you see that painting there?
Chaucer: Indeed I do. I pity their poor souls.
Pardoner: Well I do not. There was a perfectly simple solution to their sins while they were alive.
Chaucer: Oh? And what is that, my good sir?
Pardoner: Simple! You see, I am a Pardoner. I sell absolutions. Do you see that man there, being eating by the bird figure?
Chaucer: I do. He must have committed an atrocious sin.
Pardoner: Oh indeed. I think I might’n have known him in life. I come into all types you know.
Chaucer: I’m sure. And what of the people in the middle here – did they benefit from your generosity?
Pardoner: Certainly. I’m proud to have served Christendom all my life; those there must be but a fraction of those I’ve saved.
Chaucer: And I’m sure they’re screaming your name in hell to thank you for it.
Pardoner: Excuse me? Would you like to repent of that sin, right now? I don’t even need an apology, just a few ounces of-
Chaucer: I would rather suffer the curse of Christ than buy your ‘absolutions’.

Anonymous said...

Ashley Carlson part 1

B1.) A caesura is a break or pause in a line of a verse that cuts the line in half. The two halves each contain two stressed syllables and a varying number of unstressed syllables, and an alteration pattern where the stressed syllabuses usually alliterate. These breaks are most commonly located in the middle of the lines, and are often marked by punctuation, and can be represented by a double vertical line. Beowulf contains caesuras in nearly every line, as they give the rhyme-less, epic poem clarity and rhythm, but most importantly a spoken sensation. Beowulf has long been told orally as a legend amongst its natives, thus when they would speak it they would naturally pause to help better remember it better as it gave it a sense of rhythm and emphasis. One example from chapter three would be “Time had now flown;ǁ afloat was the ship,” (11). There would be a caesura there because the line was broken into two parts, each with relatively four syllables and two stressed syllables of “time” and “flown” and then “afloat” and “ship”, and the alliterative pattern would be the “fl” of “flown” and “afloat”. Thus, it is an example of caesura.
B2.) A kenning is a metaphor that functions as a name. They are often reflective of the physical characteristics or meaning of the actual word it replaces. In Beowulf, kennings are used to enhance the language of the poem, as it beautifies words by making them more complex by their descriptive meanings. In chapter three “sea-wood” is used to rename a ship. In Old English times ships were made of wood, and they would sail the seas, thus bearing the name “sea-wood”. At first when you here this word alone, you may think of driftwood, but in context the meaning can be derived from the text as seen here: “Up then quickly the Weders’ clansmen climbed ashore,/ anchored their sea-wood, with armor clashing/ and gear of battle: God they thanked”(11). You cannot anchor drift wood, but you can anchor a ship—thus the real word is assumed. Also In chapter three is a “wave-walker” also known as a sailor. Beowulf bides, “stalwart and stately. A stout wave-walker/ he bade make ready. Yon battle-king, said he, “(11) Beowulf asks someone to get his ship ready to sail, and a person who knows how to sail ships, and “walks waves” is a sailor. And later in chapter ten Beowulf refers to armor as “ gear of battle”, as logical as it sounds in context it can be deciphered as he, “Cast off then his corselet of iron,/helmet from head; to his henchman gave,—/choicest of weapons,—the well-chased sword,/ bidding him guard the gear of battle.”(24) So he hands over his helmet and corset for the guard to watch, and the parts of his attire are known as body armor. Thus, kennings were often used in place of words to beautify the text or to name the unnamable.

B3.) Beowulf is an epic tale about an epic hero that infuses both Anglo-Saxon and Christian traits into the story. The story of Beowulf is about Anglo-Saxon people, as it takes place in Scandinavia with Danes and Swedes and Geats, who to the English were known as Vikings. The story itself was one of an oral dynamic, as it would be told orally from person to person, but later on some English author took it upon himself to record the story in ink. And record it he did—somewhat. Any tale that is told by mouth tends to change a little, but when you have a Christian English man writing down an Anglo-Saxon story, something’s may be different. At the time it was recorded, Anglo-Saxon people were invading all over Europe, including England. And to

Anonymous said...

A.C. part 2
them these strangers were barbaric Pagans, as they believed in multiple gods, worshipped heroes and savagely fought. These Anglo-Saxons consisted of multiple groups, the Angeles and Saxons and even some Jetes. And because these people invaded land and worshipped false gods and behaved impolitely, the English tried to convert them.
Anglo Saxons were Pagans, as they worshiped multiple gods who would rule over different things. For example in chapter six, Beowulf refers to how fate choses as it must, and to the Pagans the god of fate is Fares Wyrd. But to Christians and Beowulf, fate lies with God. But these Pagans cannot see that as they worship false gods, “Almighty they knew not,/Doomsman of Deeds and dreadful Lord,/nor Heaven’s-Helmet heeded they ever,/Wielder-of-Wonder.”(10) Because they worshipped false gods, they could never see that their fate was determined by God. And because they were worshipping false gods, they were worshipping satanic gods as to a Christian, as stated in the Ten Commandments, there is only one God—and that’s God, and all others are false and evil. And these people would worship these gods and do all kinds of things for them so they could be accepted into the afterlife, where they would take all there earthly possessions with them to the grave for this afterlife. As seen with King Scyld Scefing in the Prologue and his Viking funeral of being buried at sea. His body, his wealth was cast into the sea, into the after-life of which the Anglo-Saxons believed in. They would send all the dead persons treasures with them as they deemed necessary, but to a Christian the only thing valuable to oneself is a soul. And these Anglo-Saxons further expanded their weird rituals into superstitions, as Beowulf notes in chapter twelve how Grendel has a spell cast on him, “He was safe, by his spells, from sword of battle, /from edge of iron” (28). But most importantly Anglo-Saxons believed in heroes and the maintenance of a heroic code, which Beowulf exceeded. Beowulf had heard of Grendel’s killings, and had swooped in to end Grendel’s life, to defend the people of a land that is not even his own. He knew how savagely Grendel fought, with only his bare hands, and he matched him—he put down his armor and clenched his fist willing to risk his own death to battle him bare. But Beowulf was not the only person trying to live up to these codes. The Danish warriors strove to meet these codes, as they were willing to die to protect their leader— Cheifin Hrothgar, in turn for a share in profit, as seen with the wife offering the chalice to the men at the table, as they sipped their reward. And when Beowulf defeated Grendel he was readily adopted by the king, and offered to have anything wealth could afford—the greatest award of all. And along with this code came blood vengeance, as seen when Beowulf swore to kill Grendel to compensate for the life of his warrior that Grendel took, and the arm was just an added bonus—a trophy to hang.
This brutal killing of Grendel depicts the savagery of theses Vikings, giving a reason for the English to want to Christianize them. And so this unknown author wrote down the Anglo-Saxons story, and he added a Christian take on it to try to get them to want to convert to Christianity and to leave their savagery behind. As stated before these people would be praying to false gods in hell, asking for Grendel to stop. By acknowledging how they prayed to hell, nods to the fact that heaven and hell exist, a Christian belief. And proof of its existence is seen with the demon—Grendel. And from hell is where this demon came as the story notably marks how

Anonymous said...

A.C. part 3
God banished him to live with Cane, a wicked monster from The Bible that killed his brother Able, “On kin of Cain was the killing avenged/by Sovran God for slaughtered Abel” (8). This is a direct allusion to Cain from The Bible, thereby indicating the fact that the author who finally wrote the story had read the Bible, something an Anglo-Saxon would dare not read. And not only does the story directly refer to the Bible, but to God also as Hrothgar and Beowulf pray to Him. King Hrothgar did not thank Fares Wyrd when Beowulf arrived; he thanked God for sending this hero to help him. “Blessed God/out of his mercy this man hath sent/to Danes of the West, as I ween indeed,/against horror of Grendel”(16). And to God is where Beowulf owes his victories, because God controls all fate and the outcome of every fight, as fate is mapped out before in the stars, in predestination. In chapter ten, Beowulf entrusts his fate in God, saying “Let wisest God,/sacred Lord, on which side soever/doom decree as he deemeth right.”(15) And because God uses Beowulf as a man for his command, he is essentially a Christ figure, as he saw the suffering of the Danes and sacrificed himself for them, to stop their torture. People along the way mocked him, persecuted him with questions, like Unferth did as he wanted the glory for himself, like the Romans wanted to have only one king, so persecuted Jesus. And by deploying these Christian characteristics on Beowulf it empowers God, as Beowulf is the only one to trust Him and to defeat Grendel—showing off the Lord’s might. So the author selectively placed Christian characteristics to highlight the difference between this hero and the common heroes, to show the difference that he had God on his side and could win, while the others did and could not. Thus, the author cleverly reveals the benefits of being Christian to the Anglo-Saxons: trying to bring one culture to succumb to another.
Works Cited
Beowulf. Trans. Francis B. Gummere. Ed. Charles W. Eliot. New York: P.F. Collier &
Sons,1910. Web.
C1.) To Chaucer the Parson is everything a priest should be. He does not try to scam people like the other men do; in fact he does not even take their money, as he remains poor. He walks on foot to places close and far, to show the extra effort he puts in to stay down to earth, to not let his class of being a priest swell his head. He knows his duty is to guide and protect, like a shepherd. He preaches for free and defends off the devil, the wolves from his followers, as he is always home with them, protecting them. The only thing he leans on his stave, the word of the Lord, of which he lives by. He teaches and lives by the word of the gospel, as Chaucer says his motto is “If gold would rust, what shall iron do?”, which means that holy men cannot be soiled, because if they are all of society below them would be even more corrupt as they were never holy to being with. Chaucer keeps referring to him as a shepherd, because shepherds are a Biblical motif, they guide sheep and protect them, and the ultimate shepherd is the Lord. So the sheep are the follower’s, pure white, and innocent and without a leader, without the word of the Lord they would not know what to do. Not only does he lead common people, but the parish itself as he is the only exemplary figure in it not tarnished by sin.

Anonymous said...

A.C. part 4
The merchant is a man of a high class. His beard was forked, suggesting that he had a craving for deals. He wore an assorted gown that is presumably made by multiple designers. And when he sat on his horse, he did not just sit, but sat high, suggesting that he had higher social status than the rest. He wore a beaver hat, signifying that he hunted for deals that enabled him to wear such fine fur, which is a costly element of attire, symbolic of his wealth. His shoes were neatly tied, suggesting that he left no ends untied, that he always finished business deals. He spoke solemnly, very formally, and properly as needed to be, to match his sophisticated palate. And when he spoke, he only talked about things that benefited him, suggesting that he may be prideful, as he only talked about the best of himself. He was a merchant reliant on the sea, on the world, and closed trade as he wanted the government to protect the sea, to protect his financial endeavors. He was so wealthy with fur and with trade he had no debt as he mastered how to bargain, and borrow, and trade. Even though he has all this class, all this money and wealth and notoriety, the narrator neglects to remember his name: suggesting that the author does not care for capitalism, because this man of money was not even worth a name, a soul—only a dollar bill he was.
The monk was a man named Austin. He was governor of a cell during the time of Saint Benedict, meaning he had little lean way with the gospel and the monastery. He, like all monks, was supposed to stay in his cell all day and read and study the Bible, but he did not. Instead he broke the words of the Bible as he hunted, flaunted, and was gluttonous, and he broke the conduct of being a monk with riding out and not wearing his cloak. He would ride the best horses, jingling his bridle, showing off his great skill. And while on the hunt with his horses, he would send out his greyhounds to find prey for him to kill. He killed despite the protest of the Bible, and the poor harmless creatures he killed he would wear in place of his cloak. He did not wear a cloak like a normal monk, it would be trimmed with fur and a tarnished clasp, suggesting his materialism and tainted morals. And the fur he wore was grey, not white like all things pure in the church are, because he is a tainted monk, who goes against the word of the Lord. This man, who is supposed to be holy, is the utmost of the unholy. He is a hypocrite—a representation of the church as the church shines off his bald shiny, lustrous head. And even though he may have been anointed with oil, he bears the burden of a gluttonous body as he would only eat the fattest swans and sit on the most saturated brown horse. And his eyes he would roll, presumably at the Scripture, and they would burn hot and red, like the devils as he was as sinful as him.

C2.) The rappers rapped out the prologue to “Canterbury Tales” in a fashion similar to how the Beastie Boys would probably do it. They used an awesome graffiti wall for their backdrop which framed their clothes. One of the guys was wearing a black t-shirt that announced that he was part of the Japanese club in 2005 at some high school along with brown pants and a mismatching plaid patterned hat. Another guy who had a gap between his front teeth and a hat on his head was wearing classy black plants, with a pinned stripe brown shirt and a solid brown undershirt. The last guy was wearing a red Doctor Pepper t-shirt with jeans and sunglasses that framed his long sideburns.

C3.) When I first heard the audio clip, it sounded completely foreign to me. The second time I listened more closely and I picked up low, soft voice with a French accent, as he mumbled the words. The words tended to be soft and not as harshly pronounced as I thought they would be. And the speaker tended to accentuate “s” and the last word of every sentence. This helped me decode the passage, as it helped me realized that the words were more so written as they would sound or be spoken, so I found it easier to read the passage out loud.

Anonymous said...

A.C. part 5
C4) “Canterbury Tales” is a tale of irony. In it, men deceit each other, they deceit the church-- they defeat the purpose of their journey, all in the namesake to arouse a deeper level of values.
“Canterbury Tales” is the about the story of these twenty-nine people who are on a journey to one of the most religious places in the world—Canterbury. Canterbury is known for its cathedrals, its pilgrimage, and its deep religious roots. And yet all these people who are going to this land are not religious themselves. The Friar, the Pardoner, the Monk and everyone who is supposed to be holy—are not. Only for a select few people like the Parson, are truly holy as they do not disgrace the word of the Lord, but live by its Christians values. As for the others, those people who are supposed to be leaders for God, who are not noble or holy, they are crooks and thieves that are tempted by the devil for greed. The tale of the Pardoner advocates the fact that the church is corrupt, that its leaders are loathsome and hypocritical, it advocates the whole tale.
A pardoner is someone of the church who is supposed to pardon and forgive people for their sins. The Pardoner himself never fully lives up to his duty, because he is not holy enough to forgive others sins, for he is a sinner himself. He does not care about forgiveness, about confession, or of the church; all he cares about is greed, of money. He scams people by collecting money from them in exchange for listening to their confession and allowing them to kiss a few stolen, Roman relics. He is a con artist who claims to save their souls, but deceitfully does not as he just takes their money and can do nothing more in his false ability. The tale he tells is a reflection of himself as he, like these three brethren, who are sworn to each other, like him to the church, they all turn against one another for the sin of greed, of money that the devil tempted them with. And in the end they are the ones that lose as they never get that gold or that ticket into heaven they think they will have. They all set out at first with the honorable mission of killing death or like the pardoner, forgiving sins, but in turn the boys let death kill them and the pardoner, sin consume him. Thus, the Pardoner is telling this story with the moral of not letting greed tempt you, yet he had tempted himself and had fallen—thus he is a hypocrite of his own story, oh the irony.
Chaucer clearly deplores the hypocrisy of the story and of his personality. He cast the Pardoner out to be a fool, as he presents him with a cunning personality that slyly deceits people—including himself. The Pardoner is such a fool to Chaucer that he cannot recognize that the story he tells is of his own life. And so Chaucer has a satirical tone as he presents him to be, because for his foolish story he shows the revelation of his own life while he still tries to make a profit from it. For the Pardoner is telling this story for the profit of greed as he tries to deceit the people in order to get them to pay a small fee to repent, before the devil takes them too. But the wise hosts sees the morals of the story, of the folly of the boys and of the Pardoner, so does not fall for such a trick; so the story he used to trick people about trickery tricked himself, as it worked against him when the host did not buy into the scam. Thus, Chaucer’s tone is ironic for he pulls the trick over on the Pardoner whose real intentions are revealed. Thus, by characterizing the Pardoner and then having him tell his story, he is revealed a fool under a satirical light as Chaucer tries to get behind the corruption of the church.
Chaucer portrays religion and morality as a crossed subject. To him member of the church, these characters are hypocritical and corrupt. The tale consists of a motif of greed as

Anonymous said...

ac part 6
every member craves it and its money. So Chaucer clearly sees the church with horrible morals as it does not care about God or of the people, but of the money it can make off of them. He presents all these member of the church as corrupt people who go against the word of God, the very word they preach and sell to the people. Instead of heading the very advice they give, they fail to be good leaders and role models as they are corrupt. So you can say Chaucer has a negative view towards religion, due to its hypocrisy and greed. Thus religion and its morality are portrayed as corrupt despicable things within the church.

C5.) Hieronymous Bosch's three paneled painting of "The Garden of Earthly Delights" depicts the fall of man to lust. And essentially the painting acts as a warning against sin, by threatening humans with hell. In the left panel is the first stage of life for man. Jesus, the man in the robe, is presenting Eve to Adam, for the first time. He stands in the middle of these two, touching Adams foot and holding Eves hand, as he unifies them together in marriage, like as done in Genesis in the Bible. Adam, who has never seen a woman before, intriguingly looks at Eve, as though already tempted by her, as though he was destined to sin. Their eyes do not meet as though she is already bashful of her nakedness before him, as if she had already committed the Original Sin. And before them is evil, as a hole spawned from hell leaks animals feasting on prey, before them—an omen of their fate. The past of exotic animals, of running in fields, of drinking clean water from the fountain of life is behind them. But even back then in the background when times were well, Satan still crept, as a snake going down the tree slivering onto the beach going to infect the watering hole. And after all, the Original Sin was inevitable—Eve ate from the tree of knowledge, leading into a life of lust.
The middle panel is full of life after Eve was tempted, when chaos befell upon the earth. In the background among the castles are people partaking in lustrous activities, one of the deadliest sins. These people have no shame as the sin in groups. As the huddle around fertile strawberry’s and fruit together and dance nakedly among one another, beneath the sky of which fairies fly telling the sins the people below have committed to the Lord. People are eating fruit and eggs, trying to seduce one another, taming wild beasts of ducks and geese. They are committing and enjoying sins. They are throwing the apples that Eve once ate around, mocking the warning that God had once given them, as they tested their fate and their punishment.
The right hand panel reaps the consequences of man’s actions. All the people are now in hell, with fire and brimstone, knives and spears piecing body parts. The people are suffering the consequences of their actions, being thrown into fire, sliced by harps and instruments, grim reapers are torturing the people. A man made of tree trunks has people endlessly walking around in circles, like a broken record playing a track, suggesting that people will always commit these sins. And inside the man of trunks is a table set that has men around it imitating Jesus’s last supper: suggesting that it is these peoples last. Some men are still falling through the black ice, being tossed in pits being excreted by a frog that consumes them; they are being tossed deeper into hell. Monsters and demons and animals are attacking a group of people playing cards, for they cannot par take in indulgence anymore. The animals rule now as they are eating the humans flesh, ushering them and riding them along. And in the bottom right corner a pig dressed as a nun kisses and forces a person to sign paper that cover his gentiles on his lap. The fun of sinning for these people is now over.

Anonymous said...

ac part 7
RAFT
(Chaucer chuckles, the pardoner walks over to see what is so amusing and sits down next to him.)
Pardoner- I sure hope that you are not laughing at that masterpiece.
Chaucer- Why, look at that a nun in hell!
Pardoner- Where?
(Chaucer points.)
Chaucer- Why of course in hell, she is over there in that smidge of a corner.
(The pardoner sneers.)
Pardoner- That is not a nun. That is a pig trying to be a nun.
Chaucer- No my dearest Pardoner, that is a real gluttonous nun in hell. You see the painter probably depicted that nun as not a human, but as a pig because, you know, she was greedy— gluttonous.
(The Pardoner stands up and towers over Chaucer.)
Pardoner- Nuns and leaders of God do not go to hell, they go to heaven. As for that pig, it is trying to pass off as a nun so it can try to get to heaven; it is trying to deceive the devil. But you would not have to pretend to be a member of the church if you obey the laws of the Lord, like me, so you will be on your sure path to heaven. But that is only once you start fresh, and repent your sins. These people clearly here did not repent their sins.
(He turned toward the painting waving his hand all around.)
You see here in the middle, there are all these people, and each person has their very own secret, and that is why they are seen over there in hell, because they did not confess there secret sin.
(Turning back, placing his hands on his hips.)
(Chaucer stands up, matching him.)
Chaucer- What are you talking about secret sin? Their sins are no secret! Are you blind? Look here, look there they are all performing dirty deeds, they are lustful—one of the deadliest sins. One cannot hide that fact when they are committing it in groups or pairs out beneath the open sky.
(They both face the painting, one at one end, the other at the other.)
Pardoner- No, they are not sinning; these people are clearly enjoying the pleasures of each other’s company. It is not as though they were committing a real sin such as stealing—a breach in the Ten Commandments. These people are just outside enjoying the world, eating a little fruit, hiding their secrets beneath their skin.
Chaucer- If they were hiding their secrets they would be wearing clothes, not baring it all for the world to see. They would be under cover, but they are not as they are all out partaking in lust together.
(The pardoner turns to him, grabbing his arm.)
Pardoner- If that is what you see then you have a sour eye, purge your sins to me for a small fee. Tell me what is it that you see with that evil eye?
(Chaucer shakes his arm free.)
Chaucer- My eye is not evil…
Pardoner- It is easier to confess to me with words, then to see the physician to correct your vision, who would just put in a glass eye.
(Chaucer starts shouting, people turn to stare.)
Chaucer- Corrupt you are, and to hell you will go. You are just like that nun and all other prominent figures of that church. You cannot take away my sins, nor the largest sin you have been committing. Just admit it foul con, you are not after the truth, but thy purse.
(The Pardoners voice is shaking bitterly.)
Pardoner- Oh, those words you speak you will reap in hell, just like the rest of them, as for me I will be looking down, Heaven bless your soul. I will be with Jesus there holding his hand like Eve. We are hand in hand, for the same man—God.
Chaucer- Oh, how foul you are to compare thyself to such a pure Deity.
(They are face to face, teeth gritted, with Chaucer now towering over the Pardoner.)
Pardoner- Only pure gold can correct the things you have said, the things you have done.
Chaucer- You have so much gold, yet your soul cannot be fixed. And do you know where gold comes from? The earth and to the earth it shall return, like your bones.
(The Pardoner angrily storms away, with Chaucer leaving the museum in the opposite direction.)
Works Cited

“The Canterbury Tales.” Geoffrey Chaucer. Librarius, 1997. Web. 18 Mar. 2004.

LPK said...

B1. A caesura is a complete stop in a line of poetry or music. A caesura can be found in just the second line of Beowulf, with the line of “spear-armed Danes, in days long sped”, and the caesura located between the words “Danes” and “in” (the location of the comma in the translation used). This would be considered a caesura due to its location (halving two portions of the line containing four syllables each, and between a set of stressed and unstressed syllables).
B2. Kenning is the combination of two words used to represent a single word. There are numerous examples of kenning in Beowulf. In the first stanza the phrase “whale-path” is used, referring almost certainly to the sea, as evidenced by the context of the line “house by the whale-path”. Later, the phrase “mid-earth” is used, although its meaning is somewhat unclear; logic might dictate that it refers to a hemisphere, perhaps, but such a thing was not an especially prominent concept in that time. It may simply refer to a moderately sized region or a location that is neither high nor low.
B3. There are several portions of Beowulf indicative of a culture in transition from the Norse-derived pagan religion of old and the Christianity that would replace it. The following passage indicates this quite plainly:
“Grendel this monster grim was called,
march-riever mighty, in moorland living,
in fen and fastness; fief of the giants
the hapless wight a while had kept
since the Creator his exile doomed.
On kin of Cain was the killing avenged
by sovran God for slaughtered Abel.
Ill fared his feud, and far was he driven,
for the slaughter's sake, from sight of men.
Of Cain awoke all that woful breed,
Etins and elves and evil-spirits,
as well as the giants that warred with God
weary while: but their wage was paid them!”
Here, we have both references that seem typical of paganistic religions of the time, and allusions to the Biblical lore that was still only making its way through Europe at the time. Grendel is a particularly Germanic-sounding name, one that almost certainly has its origins purely in Anglo-Saxon culture. References to “etins and elves and evil-spirits” are also prominent. And yet the passage also centers largely around an allusion to the Biblical tale of Cain and Abel, one that is integral to explaining the monster that is Grendel. It seems that, just as the early Christians adopted Pagan traditions in order to retain the meaning they held for a new religion, the author uses Christianity as a tandem theological device with the old beliefs, with one reinforcing and justifying the other, and vice versa.

LPK said...

B1. A caesura is a complete stop in a line of poetry or music. A caesura can be found in just the second line of Beowulf, with the line of “spear-armed Danes, in days long sped”, and the caesura located between the words “Danes” and “in” (the location of the comma in the translation used). This would be considered a caesura due to its location (halving two portions of the line containing four syllables each, and between a set of stressed and unstressed syllables).
B2. Kenning is the combination of two words used to represent a single word. There are numerous examples of kenning in Beowulf. In the first stanza the phrase “whale-path” is used, referring almost certainly to the sea, as evidenced by the context of the line “house by the whale-path”. Later, the phrase “mid-earth” is used, although its meaning is somewhat unclear; logic might dictate that it refers to a hemisphere, perhaps, but such a thing was not an especially prominent concept in that time. It may simply refer to a moderately sized region or a location that is neither high nor low.
B3. There are several portions of Beowulf indicative of a culture in transition from the Norse-derived pagan religion of old and the Christianity that would replace it. The following passage indicates this quite plainly:
“Grendel this monster grim was called,
march-riever mighty, in moorland living,
in fen and fastness; fief of the giants
the hapless wight a while had kept
since the Creator his exile doomed.
On kin of Cain was the killing avenged
by sovran God for slaughtered Abel.
Ill fared his feud, and far was he driven,
for the slaughter's sake, from sight of men.
Of Cain awoke all that woful breed,
Etins and elves and evil-spirits,
as well as the giants that warred with God
weary while: but their wage was paid them!”
Here, we have both references that seem typical of paganistic religions of the time, and allusions to the Biblical lore that was still only making its way through Europe at the time. Grendel is a particularly Germanic-sounding name, one that almost certainly has its origins purely in Anglo-Saxon culture. References to “etins and elves and evil-spirits” are also prominent. And yet the passage also centers largely around an allusion to the Biblical tale of Cain and Abel, one that is integral to explaining the monster that is Grendel. It seems that, just as the early Christians adopted Pagan traditions in order to retain the meaning they held for a new religion, the author uses Christianity as a tandem theological device with the old beliefs, with one reinforcing and justifying the other, and vice versa.

LPK said...

B1. A caesura is a complete stop in a line of poetry or music. A caesura can be found in just the second line of Beowulf, with the line of “spear-armed Danes, in days long sped”, and the caesura located between the words “Danes” and “in” (the location of the comma in the translation used). This would be considered a caesura due to its location (halving two portions of the line containing four syllables each, and between a set of stressed and unstressed syllables).
B2. Kenning is the combination of two words used to represent a single word. There are numerous examples of kenning in Beowulf. In the first stanza the phrase “whale-path” is used, referring almost certainly to the sea, as evidenced by the context of the line “house by the whale-path”. Later, the phrase “mid-earth” is used, although its meaning is somewhat unclear; logic might dictate that it refers to a hemisphere, perhaps, but such a thing was not an especially prominent concept in that time. It may simply refer to a moderately sized region or a location that is neither high nor low.
B3. There are several portions of Beowulf indicative of a culture in transition from the Norse-derived pagan religion of old and the Christianity that would replace it. The following passage indicates this quite plainly:
“Grendel this monster grim was called,
march-riever mighty, in moorland living,
in fen and fastness; fief of the giants
the hapless wight a while had kept
since the Creator his exile doomed.
On kin of Cain was the killing avenged
by sovran God for slaughtered Abel.
Ill fared his feud, and far was he driven,
for the slaughter's sake, from sight of men.
Of Cain awoke all that woful breed,
Etins and elves and evil-spirits,
as well as the giants that warred with God
weary while: but their wage was paid them!”
Here, we have both references that seem typical of paganistic religions of the time, and allusions to the Biblical lore that was still only making its way through Europe at the time. Grendel is a particularly Germanic-sounding name, one that almost certainly has its origins purely in Anglo-Saxon culture. References to “etins and elves and evil-spirits” are also prominent. And yet the passage also centers largely around an allusion to the Biblical tale of Cain and Abel, one that is integral to explaining the monster that is Grendel. Much like the early Christians, pagan tradition is combined with Biblical lore to form a composite of justification.

LPK said...

B1. A caesura is a complete stop in a line of poetry or music. A caesura can be found in just the second line of Beowulf, with the line of “spear-armed Danes, in days long sped”, and the caesura located between the words “Danes” and “in” (the location of the comma in the translation used). This would be considered a caesura due to its location (halving two portions of the line containing four syllables each, and between a set of stressed and unstressed syllables).
B2. Kenning is the combination of two words used to represent a single word. There are numerous examples of kenning in Beowulf. In the first stanza the phrase “whale-path” is used, referring almost certainly to the sea, as evidenced by the context of the line “house by the whale-path”. Later, the phrase “mid-earth” is used, although its meaning is somewhat unclear; logic might dictate that it refers to a hemisphere, perhaps, but such a thing was not an especially prominent concept in that time. It may simply refer to a moderately sized region or a location that is neither high nor low.
B3. There are several portions of Beowulf indicative of a culture in transition from the Norse-derived pagan religion of old and the Christianity that would replace it. The following passage indicates this quite plainly:
“Grendel this monster grim was called,
march-riever mighty, in moorland living,
in fen and fastness; fief of the giants
the hapless wight a while had kept
since the Creator his exile doomed.
On kin of Cain was the killing avenged
by sovran God for slaughtered Abel.
Ill fared his feud, and far was he driven,
for the slaughter's sake, from sight of men.
Of Cain awoke all that woful breed,
Etins and elves and evil-spirits,
as well as the giants that warred with God
weary while: but their wage was paid them!”
Here, we have both references that seem typical of paganistic religions of the time, and allusions to the Biblical lore that was still only making its way through Europe at the time. Grendel is a particularly Germanic-sounding name, one that almost certainly has its origins purely in Anglo-Saxon culture. References to “etins and elves and evil-spirits” are also prominent. And yet the passage also centers largely around an allusion to the Biblical tale of Cain and Abel, one that is integral to explaining the monster that is Grendel. Much like the early Christians, pagan tradition is combined with Biblical lore to form a composite of justification.

LPK said...

C1. Chaucer builds The Knight around an ideal, one that most likely was popular at the time. He describes the knight as being a gallant, chivalrous, adventurous crusader, one that has been celebrated throughout Christian Europe and has been to a number of storied places and battles in the East. Accenting this doubtlessly admirable picture is the fact that the knight “never yet had any vileness said”, meaning that the knight is not only a courageous figure, but also a clean-cut, noble one. Despite his credentials, however, the knight remains a humble figure, dressed in “A tunic of simple cloth… Discoloured and stained by his habergeon”. Chaucer may have done this to indicate a sort of fall from majesty or grace, although humbleness as a trait to admire also seems plausible.
The Squire, meanwhile, seems to be something of a Galahadian figure – the son of a knight, an accomplished warrior in his own right, “fresh as is the month of May”, tremendously talented in all fields. In short, the squire is a depiction of youth yet untainted. He may differ slightly from that son of Lancelot, however, in the fact that he is (or at least attempting to) “win thereby his lady's grace”, although this is presented chastely enough to keep the two fairly similar. There is little more to say about the Squire – he embodies the archetype of the pure young man wholly and succinctly.
The Yeoman seems to be the most down-to-earth of the first three introduced; the line “No more servants, for he chose so to ride” seems to suggest – if I am interpreting correctly – a kind of self-reliant modesty. He is described as wearing attire that seems typical of an ideal yeoman – “clothed in coat and hood of green/A sheaf of peacock arrows bright and keen/Under his belt he bore very carefully/(Well could he keep his gear yeomanly:/His arrows had no drooped feathers low)”. His (presumably primary) weapon – “a mighty bow” – seems to be intended to show his physical capability as a fighter – a bow being a weapon that, at the time, at least, required both strength and skill to use effectively. Furthermore, Chaucer describes him as being knowledgeable in “woodcraft”, “[knowing] all the useful ways” of it. His description leaves little doubt as to how Chaucer intended his character to be interpreted.
C2. The MCs are wearing a number of different things. One is wearing a black shirt with what I must assume is a quote on it, as well as a hat resembling the one favored by Gregg Alexander, songwriter and lead singer for late ‘90s one-hit wonder group The New Radicals. Another is wearing a deep salmon Dr. Pepper Shirt and sunglasses, and the third is sporting a vertically striped brown shirt and a modest gold chain necklace.
C3. The recording is spoken in what sounds like a Germanically influenced accent (although this might have been a way of hearing influenced by the link’s url). However, it helps lend an air of understanding to the text, as the flow, emphasis and rhythm of the words help to shape them into phrases. With the text at the ready at the same time, it becomes simple enough to determine the meaning in a vague, implicit sort of way. The understanding less concerns the explicit speech, but more the intent behind it.

LPK said...

C4. The Pardoner’s Tale is one that is cruelly ironic largely due to the hypocritical nature of the persona in which it is spoken. The Pardoner’s Tale, for the most part, is of the treachery that accompanies “the sin of avarice”, as the tale shows how the three men at its center are drawn to their own deaths after finding the bushels of gold. Yet this is in direct conflict with the nature of the Pardoner himself, the Pardoner being a corrupt agent of the church whose misdeeds are almost entirely done out of greed, with a history of extortion and corrupt practices under his belt.
The Canterbury Tales were written prior to the Catholic Reformation, so naturally it was likely influenced by the corruption occurring within the Church at the time (most noticeably with the ongoing sale of indulgences). This suggests a negative view of the Church by Chaucer; by using a singular, hypocritical figure tied to it, he hints at a strong disapproval of the Church as a body of power. The Pardoner is a skilled speaker and preacher, by his description, a skilled theocratic rhetoricist, but his practices themselves are wildly at odds with his words. It is difficult to say what Chaucer’s view on religion itself is, however; emblematic of a debauched Church the Pardoner may be, it is only the Church that he is truly tied to.
And yet the Pardoner is aware of his hypocrisy, acknowledging his wrongdoings. This could be interpreted multiple ways, each of which seem somewhat connected. The Pardoner’s openness could be wishful thinking on Chaucer’s part; a vicarious hope for an honest Church fulfilled. One could also see it as Chaucer’s disdainful jab at the level of its corruption – not only is it corrupt, it makes no pretenses of even suggesting otherwise. One might even suggest that it is an attempt to redeem the Pardoner and all he represents, albeit somewhat minimally – twisted the Pardoner may be, he realizes the wrongness of his actions, his hypocrisy, and at least wears it plainly rather than attempting to bury it under the guise of sacredness that accompanies his other endeavors.

LPK said...

C5.
1) In the first panel, the scene presented is noticeably calmer than the two following. There are only three figures present, one of whom is fully clothed, which creates a clothed-to-unclothed ratio considerably more in favor of the former than in later panels. The natural scene remains uncluttered, with animals abound and only a few structures that seem to be man-made. The second and largest panel, however, dramatically increases the level of chaos – almost no one is clothed, the number of people and structures has increased dramatically, and a number of activities – many of which seem dubious for that time period – are being undergone. One could call it, without a moment of apprehension, “orgiastic”. The third panel then illustrates what is presumably the fall, with a much darker and hellish scene being presented. Any nudity is no longer a sign of unbound and reckless passion, but of more explicit indecency and weakness.
2) Role: A screenwriter
Audience: A group of writers, prepared to edit the script before it becomes final
Format: A film script, based on a loose interpretation of what it would be like if Chaucer could interact with the characters of The Canterbury Tales
Tone: A conversational exploration of character

[The Pardoner is standing in a museum, staring at Bosch’s painting. Chaucer walks over and stands next to him]
CHAUCER: You seem troubled, my friend.
PARDONER: I am not troubled, necessarily.
CHAUCER: Are you sure?
PARDONER: I am indeed. I am perhaps a little solemn, but not quite troubled.
[pause]
CHAUCER: Are you perhaps concerned that your misdeeds in the name of piousness will bring you to a place much like the third panel?
PARDONER: [chuckling uncomfortably] No, I am already quite certain that I am headed to a place rather like that panel.
CHAUCER: Then what is it that is on your mind when you stare it in in this manner?
PARDONER: I am thinking about why it is that I am destined to go there.
CHAUCER: If you’ll allow me to be blunt, I would say it is because of your aforementioned misdeeds.
PARDONER: And yet I know they are misdeeds, and still I did them, knowing where they would take me. Does it not seem a little at odds with this painting, in which the people in the center seem so blissfully unaware that their sins are drawing them closer to what lies on the right?
CHAUCER: You think the awareness of your hypocrisy lessens the severity of it?
PARDONER: No. I am wondering what the difference is between giving in to basest human nature without thought and knowingly committing treachery is. Am I worse, for knowing the consequences and ignoring them? Or are they, for not even considering what they are doing?
CHAUCER: Corruption is inherent in all mankind. It is only natural that so many fall into it, one way or another, even those who claim to hold the key to salvation.
PARDONER: And those who defiantly walk away from it? They forget the purity on the left and ignore the consequence on the right. Those such as myself walk from the first to the third with our paths static and focused, always fully conscious of what we are abandoning and what we have yet to reap.
CHAUCER: [silence]
PARDONER: I am not bothered by this outcome, as it is one I accepted before, but I confess that I cannot help but be a little puzzled by it…
[The Pardoner exits. Chaucer is left to stand in thoughtful silence.]

Matt Carlin said...

B1.
The Caesura presents a pause or a break in the middle of a line or verse. Within Beowulf an example can be found with in the first verse. “No man is able to say in sooth, no son of the halls,
no hero 'neath heaven, -- who harbored that freight!” (__--). The reason being is for the complete pause and break the “- - “causes with in the line. The Caesura is used to indicate pause and emphasis on a specific line or section of a line to ensure an effect for the readers, which in the case of the above quote “who harbored that freight”, is the intended victim of the emphasis.

B2
A kenning is a form of a compound, often hyphenated, noun used as figurative language for a more concrete noun. One example in Beowulf is “Whale-Path” or known to us as the sea. The reason for this particular word being a kenning is because the vast ocean had no real word to describe it so poets often used nouns known in the ocean lie “whale” and what people travel on when on land “path” and form “whale-path”. A more diverse example of kenning within the text is “sea-wood” which in our current form of language would describe wood from the sea, actually being a ship in Beowulf. The line using “sea-wood” reads “… the sea-wood he sought, and, sailor proved, led them to the land’s confines”, which in context words like “sailor” and the “land’s confines” both show that a boat and the sea were involved, therefore the “sea-wood” would have to be a ship or a boat. The ultimate example of kenning though would be “war-gear” which is gear of war, modernly. Now it’s the ultimate example not for any complicated reasons but for simply being an example of word play in dialect of English foreign to many readers. Normally a writer would be forced to write “the gear of war” but in this case “war-gear” is able to suffice.








B3
The Anglo-Saxons, brutal warriors from Northern Europe; their blades rang as true as their church bells, and their songs sung as heartily as their meals. The Anglo-Saxons hailing from Scandinavia were brute Vikings whose military prowess was renowned across the British mainland. Known to fighting with their clans and clansmen, these close knitted communities eventually took over a majority of Great Britain, and played a vital role within the tale of William the Conqueror. Within Beowulf these qualities are quite easy to spot. The very first few lines of the epic poem are testament enough. Now Beowulf bode in the burg of the Scyldings, leader beloved, and long he ruled in fame with all folk, since his father had gone
away from the world, till awoke an heir, haughty Healfdene, who held through life, sage and sturdy, the Scyldings glad. Then, one after one there woke to him, to the chieftain of clansmen, children four:” (Beowulf) This passage nearly expresses the very essence of Anglo Saxon society. The brutality of the very birth of a man and the kinship possessed at a very early age. However the kinship strong let us not forget the brutality of the Anglo-Saxon way! “And now the bold one from bands of Geats comrades chose, the keenest of warriors e'er he could find; with fourteen men the sea-wood he sought, and, sailor proved, led them on to the land's confines.” As usual with Anglo military custom the prince or chieftain of the expedition would pick the very best warriors among his clan and embarked across seas to confront foreign enemies on their own land.

Matt Carlin said...

C1
The Merchant: Chaucer’s characterization of the Merchant is fantastic. The Merchant is described as a witty man with a forked beard. He described the merchant with a set of adjectives pointing to a well-kept and organized man of the times, such as “his boots were fastened neatly and elegantly.” Then he gracefully adds in how the merchant is at all what he seems, such as being in debt, being poor, and almost a swindler in fact. “This worthy man kept all his wits well set; there was no person that knew he was in debt.” And my favorite line “But to tell the truth, his name I can’t recall.” This points to a swindler for their famous line of work during the time period.
The Miller: The Miller was characterized by the most stereotypical means available to Chaucer, “The Miller was a strong fellow… hardy, big of brawn and big of bone.” A description of such originality it can “hardly” be passed by without great effort from the reader. He entire features are compared to that of tools and animals associated with his trade such as “His beard, as any sow or fox, was red, and broad it was as if it were a spade.” And he seems to be a Scotsman with the reference to the bagpipes which nearly only the Scotsman plays (in the most respectable manner, it is their invention).

The Squire
The Squire or known as the Knights son was the most developed character with the least amount of words. His father being a noble knight, he was known as “A lover and lively bachelor”. The Squire was known to be after a woman away from their journey and is known as a good horseman. His class was high though always below his father as shown in “…carved before his father at the table” He sang and danced, jousted and sketched. His character was wide open in a hundred words or less.

C2
The MCs attire was well diverse to say the least, but this won’t be the least. One of the MCs looked completely like Johnny Knoxville, and had the glasses to boot, while the other Caucasian was dressed like a 1990’s want to be boy band member, his hat being a blotchy combination of white , gray and blue, he stands out like a sore thumb. Finally the main rapper of the entire video is an African American with a space between his two top front teeth. However, let it be said his shirt is decent button up with long sleeves and brown and black stripes. He wears a similarly colored hat and dark blue jeans.
C3
The narrator’s accent is obviously un-American and though boarders between a higher pitched northern Irish accents it can very well be argued to be Germanic too. (Though is reality it has to be known that the two Should sound nothing alike, but in the case of this man he somehow mixes them up.) His accent actually is so heavy and mumbled that it’s hard to hear any sort of articulation or correct pronunciation of any word he tries to utter. Normally a speaker would slow down and articulate each word with careful and precise tone and pitch but this narrator likes to drag, mumble and sink his words into an articulation that rivals a completely foreign language.

Matt Carlin said...

C4
The Pardoner’s tale is a dreadfully ironic and slightly enlightening fabrication. Chaucer uses the Pardoner as a means to convey his own fervent opinions on religion and morality and does through a heated tale with in his very story. To fully explain his opinion Chaucer first sets up the character of the Pardoner, a religious clergyman right out of the Italian peninsula. The pardoner accepts and makes money off of pardons which takes money from other people in exchange of pardoning their sins to god on behalf of the church. In modern times such a practice has been labeled as selling indulgences. The pardoner is a “true” embodiment of the Catholic Church ideals in which greed and lust lead to a path of damnation. The pardoner acts as an example of papal ideals and how a man would live with such principles in life. Chaucer describes him as a man with “his hair unbound” and a “veronica sewed to his cap”. The pardoner is known for his regal like appearances and his “riding in style” as Chaucer puts it. Due to these attributes is become increasingly painful as the pardoner’s tale unfolds and the moral of the story is shown. It is best to acquire a quick synopsis of the tale to better understand the irony in it. The tale involves a group of three men who try and “search” for death. While on their search they come upon a huge amount of gold and plot to murder one another in order to take a larger share. Well when all parties plan for the same event, a disaster happens and all three men are left dead at the end of the tale, with the life moral being greed leads to death. The truly ironic part of this whole tale is that the pardoner takes the money of others without needing too, for as seen in the protestant reformation, selling pardons on behalf of god isn’t just wrong is the pure essence of greed.
Chaucer’s tone through this whole tale is very clear upon examination. His dry and humorless tone is only matched by the sheer hate of which Chaucer feels towards the religion of his time. By juxtaposing the tale and the personality of the Pardoner, Chaucer sets up a clear premise for what’s about to come, a real bashing of the idea. Most writers who have a strong opinion on any given subject will usually resort to some sort of sarcastic or satirical manner in expressing their opinion, such as the complete and utter lie conducted between the pardoner’s personality and his tale. Chaucer first makes a small effort to point out the corruption in the pardoner’s business stating how he “makes more money than the parson.” In some cases during the tale, an argument can be made that the tone switches to a more cynical position when the author uses the host to come out and make a rant against the pardoner. For at the very end of the tale the pardoner finds the audacity to try and sell his pardons to the listens and when the hosts hears this, he makes an attempt to fully put the pardoner in his place.
Finally Chaucer uses his passage to convey his very opinion on the matter of religion and morals. I will take the time to fully express that Chaucer is what we now call, reformists. His anti-papal views on the catholic religion are overly visible in his argument between the Host and Pardoner. Chaucer is annoyed (to say the least) with the church’s action of pardons which they sell for high cost for their followers to get into their promised land, and Chaucer makes no mistake in allowing his pardoner to take full embodiment of that idea. Not going as far as stating Chaucer is against religion, but I would say he is very well against its institutions. Chaucer is however a man of morality, as can been seen in the Canterbury tales. The difference between the two as he hints is morals have no institution in which they can be manipulated, and as the Pardoners morals get more and more conflicted and seem to been completely false, Chaucer takes the time to point out and berate the Pardoner (or in this case those who are like the pardoner) for their misplaced values in society.

Matt Carlin said...

C5 Raft
The Painting is depicting multiple scenes within its canvas which are separated by three “panels” The far left panel depicts Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden, a holy symbol for the Catholic religion. The middle panel depicts and massive gathering of nude persons, who seem to be participating a public event of some sorts with racing and other attractions. The last panel depicts hell or a hellish area where people are being punished for what can be presumed their crimes.

Chaucer: “Hello Pardoner, it seems we both have come to see this wonderful painting.”
Pardoner: “it would indeed be so.”
Chaucer: “Then shall I ask your true opinion upon this very artwork?”
Pardoner: “Yes for the work of art displays the very teachings of the lord! (After embarking on a long drawn out preaching) and it would be best to know these three tenets: Through purity you will be rewarded , through lust and mischief you will be sent to hell and lastly remember that only the church can save you!”
Chaucer: “Well it seems we are overzealous today aren’t we? It would seem as though this painting speaks of a different nature as though the evolution of the church rather than those outside it?”
Pardoner: “How dare you say such a thing, a sin like that could cost a man a house in order for forgiveness?”
Chaucer: “or what are you going to send me to the right panel? How does an institution have the power to condemn those who don’t pay a mortal fine?”
Pardoner: “It’s no matter the reason, it’s just the cause, therefore you will need to pay a pardon or you will end up in the right panel!”
Chaucer: “you know why I created you? To show the true irony that is called religious institutions and how they can easily be swayed by greed and lust like those they condemn for doing so. It is up for the moral man to take the stand of what is right and what is wrong, for that is where true eternal punishment would go… But enough of this debate what shall you do now pardoner?”
Pardoner: “all this work and preaching has bored me near death! I need to entertain myself in order to occupy my already fuming mind. Perhaps I will go visit that nearby brothel and…”
Chaucer: “That will be enough out of you, hypocrite.”

LCerullo said...

B1. A caesura is a type of pause or break in the rhythm of a sentence or clause. They are found predominantly throughout Beowulf’s entirety. An example from the text would be the very first line: “LO, praise of the prowess of people-kings of spear-armed Danes, in days long sped,
we have heard, and what honor the athelings won!” The pause takes place after “Danes” and the majority of other examples (not all) throughout the work occur after words ending with “s” which creates a natural spacing of sort. When read aloud slowly, the rhythm can be identified. More examples of words triggering caesura’s from the work include: earls, gifts, halls, kings, nobles, clouds, and son.

B2. Kenning is the the use of two-words as a poetic metaphor for an object. In Beowulf there are a number of examples which include: whale-path, battle-sweat, and under-wide-earth. Whale-path, broken down as a path for whales represents the seas and oceans. Battle-sweat refers to the shedding of blood during battle, the sweat of battle. Under-wide-earth represents death, the overtaking of flesh by the soil of the earth. The poetic element of each example gives greater effect and detail than that of any of the singular words they allude to.

B3. Components of Anglo Saxon life are seen everywhere in Beowulf: from mead-halls (their lodges of recreation), their aggressive dispositions, to their nobles who possessed the titles of Thane or Earl. For example: “Oft Scyld the Scefing from squadroned foes, from many a tribe, the mead-bench tore, awing the earls.” Here their combative nature is displayed through “squadroned foes”. The “mead-bench tore” is likely a metaphor, using the kenning word “mead-bench” which refers to the seat or bench of a feast. Lastly, “awing the earls” was likely the hope of any warrior, to impress the Earl (clan head) of their respective clans. In regards to Christianity references to Genesis are seen in the line:
“He sang who knew4
tales of the early time of man,
how the Almighty made the earth,
fairest fields enfolded by water,
set, triumphant, sun and moon
for a light to lighten the land-dwellers,
and braided bright the breast of earth
with limbs and leaves, made life for all
of mortal beings that breathe and move.
Citations:
Unknown, . "Beowulf." etext.virginia.edu. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Sep 2012.
Delahoyde, Michael. "Anglo-Saxon Culture." public.wsu.edu. Washington State University, n.d. Web. 15 Sep 2012.

Luke Cerullo AP English Part I

LCerullo said...

C1. The Knight stuck out to me in how Chaucer characterizes him as such a unique yet classy guy. Chaucer begins his introduction by first portraying the Knight as a “gentleman”, someone of true class and morals; someone who lived his life by “truth, honor, freedom”, and especially by the code of chivalry. Most interestingly is Chaucer’s revealing of the Knight’s experiences and presence in famous battles including: Alexandria, Prussia, Latvia, Russia, Granada, Algeciras, Belmarie, Ayas, and Satelye to name a few. In regards to appearance Chaucer clearly states him as being dressed rather meagerly (“he was not gaily dressed”), possessing only a single tunic of cloth under his “habergeon”, a sleeveless coat of mail.
Having one of the shorter introductions, I was drawn to the Yeoman by his short yet meaningful descriptions, specifically that of his appearance. Chaucer creates him as bearing a coat capped with a green hood. A belt lying across his waist beneath of which hung a sheaf of peacock feathered arrows for his “mighty bow” tightly gripped in his hand. On one hand he bore a “bright bracer” and on one hip he carried a sword and buckler and at the other a dagger “sharp as a spear’s point in the light”. I find it ironic how this yeoman, this farm owner, seems the most battle-ready of all in the group, even more than that of the knight and his squire. Chaucer gives little insight into his character other than “Of woodcraft he knew all the useful ways”, and the concluding line “A forester he truly was, I guess.” The last two words “I guess” struck me as very interesting in how it seems Chaucer was almost surprised at the impressiveness of his humble new creation.
Ironically I was also drawn to the Cook, who like the Yeoman was given a rather short description by Chaucer. Though not as potent as the Yeoman, the cook’s description possessed some comic relief which was unfound in the others. As would be expected the cook could roast, bake, boil, broil, and fry. Chaucer creates him as an ale connoisseur as well. Sad yet funny: “That on his shin an open sore had he” Chaucer pokes fun at the cook to make light of a one of the rather unspectacular pilgrims in the Tales. Chaucer gives no other insight into his appearance or character.

C2. Guy #1: Black T-Shirt (says: MARYKNOLL HIGH SCHOOL JAPANESE CLUB 2005) and a striped fishing hat
Guy #2: Red Dr. Pepper T-shirt and goofy shades, blue jeans
Guy #3: Brown striped button-up shirt

C3. To be quite honest, to say I could understand the passage from the audio would be a blatant lie, but there is much I could take in from the listening. First off, setting aside pronunciation, the rhythm of each phrase and sentence, I found to be very familiar and not foreign. It seems our speech patterns have held steadfast over the years. Secondly, in contrast to today’s English, the consonants seemed much more stressed and harsh while the vowels however were fleetingly passed over when pronounced. Lastly, while some words could be picked out, the large majority of the vocabulary seemed quite foreign leading to my ultimate confusion at the conclusion of the passage.

Luke Cerullo AP English Part II

LCerullo said...

C4. The irony which arises is painful indeed as a result of the avaricious nature of the Pardoner contrasting the so-called morality associated with the profession itself. It is globally assumed that any person to take up a lifelong profession in servitude of their God, specifically the Christian God, is by token expected to be a gracious and moralistic person. Chaucer takes this universally accepted stereotype and turns it on its head for the world to see. He wanted his audience to see that even servants of god fall victim to the weakness of our nature, to the vices of our world specifically that of greed and selfishness.
Coming off the tale of the three men and death, the Pardoner’s role complements the irony of their actions masterfully. Within the tale, three men with noble intentions to seek and conquer death incarnate, discover their own capacities for greed and end up slaughtering themselves over a discovered fortune. Greed is what pervades the Pardoner’s tale. The Pardoner’s entry into the mix complements the irony in how his own apparent holiness and selfless intentions are soiled by greed through the three men; how he takes their fortune and grants them pardon following their deaths (a weak excuse to justify taking it).
Chaucer’s tone can be characterized as echoed by the way he literally repeats his creation of irony not only in a similar method but by revolving both sequential examples around the universal human capacity for greed. The first half: noble intentions fall prey to greed. The second half: holistic intentions fall prey to greed. While it can be concluded Chaucer had a strong interest towards the role of greed in life at the time, it is quite clear he saw great fault in the Christian Church. His portrayal of the Pardoner clearly displayed his critical opinions of the concept of indulgences and pardons granted by the church; trading currency (an invention of man) for divine savior. Chaucer saw these pardons as no more than an excuse to bolster the already overflowing coffers of the Church. In regards to morality, Chaucer also seemed to have believed it as a rarity, if not completely artificial (evidence being the three normal men who fell prey to their own innate desires).

Luke Cerullo AP English Part III

LCerullo said...

C5. The Left Panel shows God introducing or possibly presenting Eve to Adam. Adam’s awestruck appearance is likely attributed not only to the amazement of God’s presence but of Eve’s beauty. The panel likely symbolizes the birth of the human desire and capacity for procreation. Moving on from procreation the Center Panel in contrast shows numerous people both men and women having a merry time. Some can be seen in the water, riding horses, eating and drinking, and performing sexual acts. This panel truly idolizes the work’s title: “The Garden of Earthly Delights”. Jumping tracks from the happier moods of the Left and Center Panels, the Right Panel presents a much darker place, presumably hell. Destruction and suffering dominate the panel, the way smoke fills the skies to block the sun and how men and women call out in pain at the lower half of the panel that appear to have been impaled.

R.A.F.T.
Chaucer: Quite a masterpiece there. Don’t you think?
Pardoner: Yes, yes I find it quite remarkable a single man could make such a thing.
Chaucer: Certainly the artist had years of experience before crafting this work in particular. Time really is the most valuable thing is it not?
Pardoner: I would not say so, for with salvation time is only an illusion. It is with coin that our lives are made of worth.
Chaucer: Funny a man of God would speak so highly of coin.
Pardoner: Anything which can grant one safe passage into the Kingdom of Heaven should be rightfully placed above all else.
Chaucer: So even those who have sinned and would likely suffer in that manner *points to right panel*, can achieve salvation through a mere exchange of coin?
Pardoner: Why of course, such is the generosity of our Lord.
Chaucer: Generosity would require no payment my dear Pardoner, you make our Lord sound more like a businessmen.
Pardoner: Oh dear, ‘tis a shame not all can be saved; perhaps there is still hope.
Chaucer: I would not want any part of the God you believe.
Pardoner: Well…Enjoy these Earthly Delights while they last, ‘tis a shame not all can be saved.
Chaucer: I pray you will someday see the sense in your own words. Fare thee well.

Luke Cerullo AP English Part IV

Nicole Miller said...

Nicole Miller-Part 1-

B1.) A caesura, relating to poetry, is a pause in the middle of a sentence, phrase, or line. Caesuras are meant to enhance the effect of the sentence and keep the work from running together entirely. Within Beowulf, an example of a caesura is “Since erst he lay friendless, a foundling, fate repaid him,” (unknown 5). Beowulf is full of caesuras, they are present in nearly every sentence, but I decided to choose this one because it contained multiple pauses and strongly showed the emphasis that the pauses create. The caesuras in this sentence stress that fate repaid the man who suffered, and in this, case the surrounding sentences show that he is compensated with wealth. The man is Beowulf, son of Scyld. The pauses emphasize his suffering through creating a pause within adjectives. Foundling, meaning a deserted child or infant, and his friendless, are surrounded by the caesura and increase the desolateness that Beowulf experienced.

B2.) Kenning is present throughout Beowulf. Kenning is a round about way to say something, and is also called circumlocution (wiki). It is a way to describe something based on its attributes, appearance, or uses. Three examples of kenning in Beowulf are breaker-of-rings, march riever, and sea-wood. Breaker-of-rings means a king or chieftain, march riever is used to describe somewhat of an illegal immigrant; someone who leaves their country and roams the neighboring country, and sea-wood is a boat. I chose these examples because they show how they name the word by describing its’ attributes in the title. Breaker-of-rings is a kenning for a king or chieftain of a comitatus, and in Beowulf, kings wore gold spiral rings and would break off some of the gold to reward their followers, thus describing the action of how the kings rewarded their followers in the title of the kenning. March reiver is used to describe a person who leaves his country and wanders in another. Reiver, also reaver, is a person who steals goods, and relates to somewhat of an illegal immigrant as the person illegally enters and disturbs the country nearby. A third example of kenning in Beowulf is sea-wood. Boats, even nowadays and always in earlier centuries, were made of wood. The wood used in the boats was for sea travel, thus naming the boats sea wood as they are both destined to travel the sea and are made entirely out of wood. I chose these three examples because their titles were based on what the kennings meant and what they were used for.

Nicole Miller said...

Nicole Miller PART 2
B3.) Beowulf contains a mix of the values of the Anglo-Saxons, Old English, and Christianity. In 597 AD, Augustine traveled to England to convert the natives to Christianity, and after 650 AD, almost all of England practiced Christianity. In Beowulf, Christianity is practiced and stresses that God provides all matters to man and that he is the almighty creator of mankind. Some instances in Beowulf of Christianity are when God is described as the almighty creator, they are described as being beneath heaven, and lordly gifts are discussed. Instances of God being described as the creator of both heaven and earth is when a song is song describing the creation, and when God is called the Creator. On page eight, a song is sung by a Dane. “Who knew the tales of the early time of man, how the Almighty made the earth, fairest fields enfolded by water, set, triumphant, sun and moon for a light to lighten the land-dwellers,”(unknown 8). This song describes the earthly things that God created, and portrays the core Christian belief that God is the creator of all things. Also, this Christian belief is shown when God is called the creator. “ Fief of the giants the hapless wight a while had kept since the Creator his exile doomed,” (unknown 8). Another Christian belief is that not only is there a physical world for mortals, but there is an afterworld for all eternity. The afterworld is heaven, and is shown when the narrator describes himself as being beneath heaven. “No man is able to say in sooth, no son of the halls, no hero ‘neath heaven—who harbored that freight,”(unknown 6). A final instance of the Christian beliefs in Beowulf is when things are being described as “lordly gifts,” or things that they believe were given to them from God. “No less these loaded the lordly gifts, thanes’ huge treasure,” (unknown 6). The treasures of thanes are being described as gifts from the lord.

Nicole Miller said...

Nicole Miller PART 3

Along with Christian beliefs, Anglo-Saxon values and Old English are present as well. Some main values include fairness, deep seeded loyalty, love of glory, and honor through battle. The most often seen value within Beowulf is honor and bravery through battle. One main character who has earned a lot of respect and honor through his battles is Hrothgar. “To Hrothgar was given such glory of war, such honor of combat, that all his kin obeyed him gladly till great grew his band of youthful comrades,” (unknown 7). Hrothgar shows the glory and honor that is earned through battle, and also shows another value, that of loyalty, that he earned from his kin through his time as a warrior. I chose Hrothgar as an example of the Anglo-Saxon values because the majority of them have to do with battle, and as he is a great warrior, he has earned glory, respect, honor, and loyalty.

Works Cited:
“England c.450-1066 in a nutshell.” Anglo-Saxons.net. Miller, Sean. Web. September 10, 2012.

C1.) Of the several pilgrims in The Canterbury Tales, I chose the knight, the miller, and the shipman. The Knight was the first pilgrim described, and one of the more noble and good individuals. The Knight was a worthy man who loved chivalry, truth, honor, freedom, and courtesy. He was well known and honored everywhere for his worthiness in the fifteen battles that he both fought and won. He was considered to be a gentleman, and did not have any evil or vileness in him. He was well tempered and always won his duels and killed his foes. He was described as wearing a simple tunic that was discolored by his habergeon. The Knight was strong and brave, and was the most noble of the pilgrims.
Another pilgrim in The Canterbury Tales is a Shipman. The Shipman wore a thick wool gown that reached to his knees and a dagger that hung around his neck on a cord. He rode in a carthorse, unlike the knight who rode on the back of a great steed. The Shipman’s face was burnt brown from the hot summer, and he was said to be a fine person, but he did not have a nice conscience. He took the Trader’s wine while he slept multiple times, and was said to send the victims of his fights home to every land by water. The Shipman was, however, extremely knowledgeable of all things required of a sailor, such as the currents, dangerous waterslides, harbors, the moon, and pilotage. The Shipman is extremely wise regarding things that relate to the water, but would be considered less noble than the Knight.
A third pilgrim is the Miller. He is a strong and hardy fellow who is big boned and brawn. He always won at wrestling and is strongly built, broad, and heavy. His appearance is depicted as a large redhead with large nostrils, and with a hairy wart on his nose. He is a bit of a jester, and knows poetry, but only that of sin and obscenity. He wore a blue hood with a white coat, and led a group of pilgrims on their adventure with his playing of the bagpipes.

Nicole Miller said...

Nicole Miller PART 4

C2.) The MC’s are all wearing different attire. One has sunglasses and a Dr. Pepper shirt, another is wearing a hiking hat and a Japanese club shirt, and the third one is wearing a stripped long sleeved shirt with a hat. They all have jeans and are rapping the introduction of The Canterbury Tales with a strange British accent.

C3.) The narrator’s voice sounds like a mixture of a German, Swedish, and British accent. His emphases on certain syllables help me to understand the passage because it shows why some of the words are spelt the way they are. They are spelt differently with different letters because that is the way the speakers of middle English pronounced certain words. For example, I wasn’t sure what “wolden” meant, but once hearing the added “en” to some words and hearing the accent, I understood that it means “would.”

C4.) The story of the Pardoner’s Tale is full of irony in relation to the Pardoner himself. The Pardoner claims that he has the ability to pardon all sins, including that of avarice, and only requires a moderate fee. He demands gold and silver coinage for his special ability and claims that he has the relics of saints to give to the three drunkards that he is talking to. The painful irony, however, is that he will absolve the sins of avarice while filling his pockets. He will get rid of their sins for money, showing that he himself is a con man only interested in money himself.
This irony brings amusement into the story, rather than undermining it’s effectiveness. The three drunkards went searching for death, and believed that they instead found gold. They were going to split the money three ways, and live a life of luxury. However, their greed got in the way as the youngest devised a plan to kill the other two while they planned to kill the youngest to keep more money for themselves. It turns out, however, that they actually found death when they encountered the gold. The youngest poisoned the other two, and they killed the youngest. Even in their death, they encountered an even more ironic situation as the pardoner required money to absolve the drunkards of their sins of avarice. The irony within this tale gives the story more depth and makes it more interesting.
Following suit, the entire tale was told light-heartedly and ironically, and if it wasn’t told in such a way, then the irony would have conflicted with the story. Even though the tale was about death and avarice, it was told in a playful manner, allowing for irony. The pardoner supposedly can pardon sins, including that of avarice, but ironically, only after being pain in coinage, thus causing him to be described as having an ironic personality. As a result of the use of irony and the ironic personality of the pardoner, I would characterize Chaucer’s tone as playful.
Due to his light-hearted and playful tone when describing death and his ability to have friends murder each other with the slightest provocation, as well as his ironic description of religious matters, I would characterize Chaucer’s view on morality as circumstantial and his view on religion as ironic. Chaucer was able to construct a poem where three friends have no qualms about killing each other the second financial gain enters the picture. They turn on each other just for the added amount of gold that the deaths of the others would add. I believe that is view on morality is circumstantial because he created a tale where three friends killed each other when gold was introduced, but did not prior to its entrance. When something substantial enters the picture, his characters are willing to murder one another, showing that their morality wavers depending on the situation. Following suit, I believe that he views religion as ironic as repentance for the sin of avarice in The Pardoner’s Tale requires a fee to be paid. Without being paid, the religious figure of the pardoner would not pardon their sins, thus showing irony in this religious figure’s avarice.

Nicole Miller said...

Nicole Miller PART 5
C5.)
1.) The three panels in the painting each have a different meaning. The panel on the left is showing the creation of mankind and animals, as well as sowing the original sin with Adam and Eve lounging near a tree with a robed figure. The middle panel appears to be showing the paradise on earth that can be lost through sins, including that of lust, which appears to be depicted through the naked people lounging around. The third panel on the right looks to show hell and damnation. The three appear to be in order, the creation of man, then the possible paradise lost to sin, and the hell fire and damnation that ensues.

2.) “I believe those two under the tree are Adam and Eve.” Said Chaucer. “I could have pardoned them had they come to me, then there would be no original sin,” stated the pardoner, “Yes, but then where’s the fun in that?” “There, there’s the fun! Look at the middle panel, that’s what escalated from the original sin. Still, though, it looks pretty nice there,” said Chaucer. “Yeah, but do you see the last panel? It looks like the end of the earth and the damnation of the sinners, couldn’t they have paid a pardoner, such as myself? I think the painter should have taken that into account.” “You really believe that a few coins you self-righteously stole would stop that? Don’t kid yourself, you’re merely a glorified con man.” Said Chaucer. “No, I would have given them the relics of the saints! That hell fire never would have happened had they paid a pardoner. They are far to greedy and must have deserved their fate.” “Pardoner, I doubt your greed would have saved them from theirs.”

Anonymous said...

B1.
A Caesura is a strong pause in the middle of a line of poetry. Caesuras are used to steer a poem away from coming across as dull or monotonous. This is done in order to “spice up” the writing. If there is a sporadic break in lines, then the reader will be more interested and willing to read. Beowulf contains numerous examples of Caesura. One particular example of Caesura can be seen in the following lines:
Now Beowulf bode in the burg of the Scyldings,
leader beloved, and long he ruled
in fame with all folk, since his father had gone
The space between “ruled” and “in fame” adds a sort of emphasis on that particular line which is exactly what users of Caesura intend to do when they include it in their writing.

B2. Kenning is described as a metaphorical word or phrase used in Old English or Old Norse poetry. The phrases are often separated by a hyphen. Writers used kenning to give names to things that might not have had specific words yet. The unknown author of Beowulf uses Kenning in his story. The prelude mentions something called a “whale-path.” The author is referring to the ocean but simply did not have a word for it. One can see a similar situation with “the breaker-of-rings.” According to the footnote, “the breaker-of-rings” is referring to the king of a comitatus. A third example of kenning being used in Beowulf can be seen when the author is calling Grendel a march-riever. A march-riever is considered a disturber of the boarder. In other words, the author is implying that Grendel is a nuisance to Beowulf’s society. Numerous other examples of Kenning were included in this epic poem as well.

B3. Anglo-Saxons were a very interesting group of people. For one, they believed in lucky charms. They felt that rhymes or potions could protect them from evil. Because they believed these things would defend them from evil, they must have believed that this evil existed. In the case of Beowulf, this evil can be seen in the form of Grendel. Grendel is a giant that roams the country side looking for things to smash. Although no magic is used to defend against him, this monster is a form of the evil Anglo-Saxons might have been afraid of. On a religious note, Anglo-Saxons were Heathens. This meant that they had numerous Gods and Goddesses. However, their religion did shift into Christianity which means that Beowulf was written after that shift. This is made apparent on page 8 when a singular “Lord” is mentioned. Heathens would have mentioned many different Lords. Thus, the history of Anglo-Saxons allows Beowulf readers to roughly decipher the time period in which the epic poem was written.
“Anglo-Saxon Beliefs.” Primary History: Anglo-Saxons. BBC. September 16, 2012. http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/primaryhistory/anglo_saxons/anglo-saxon_beliefs/

. "Anglo Saxon Religion." Hullwebs History of Hull. 2004. Hullwebs (UK). September 16, 2012. http://www.hullwebs.co.uk/content/c-anglo-saxon/religion/religion.htm

Dan Rafuse

Anonymous said...

C1. Chaucer’s descriptions of the pilgrims are very interesting and entertaining to read. All of the characters in “The Canterbury Tales” are given a background story and a concise description. Chaucer’s knight was a very noble man. He is spoken highly of because of his love for chivalry and honesty. It seems as though the knight is worthy of this praise because of his many great accomplishments. For instance, the knight was a great military man who never lost. He travelled to Lithuania, Russia, and the Mediterranean Sea. It is clear that Chaucer had a great deal of respect for this man.
Chaucer also includes a nun in his tales. This nun is essentially the depiction of the kindest woman one would ever encounter. She is also a very resourceful and caring woman. Her name was Madame Eglentyne. Chaucer explains to readers that the nun wastes nothing when she eats. In fact, she will not let a single morsel fall to her plate. The woman was very well-mannered and had two dogs. She definitely loved the dogs more than anything, because Chaucer says that she would sorely weep if either of them died. The tears she would have shed would have been tears of extreme emotion and love. Fortunately, that was simply a hypothetical scenario for the nun.
Thirdly, Chaucer discusses the friar. The friar may well be the most interesting character in “The Canterbury Tales.” The friar is a man of great power and also responsibility. He was also quite popular. Chaucer writes that the friar was “well beloved and familiar” with landowners and respectable women in his country. This may have been because his powers of confessions meant more to them because the friar had more power than the priest. The friar often listened to confessions of the noble. However, the friar’s sense of entitlement is made apparent when Chaucer says he will not hear confessions from poor people or Lepers because they will not lead to profit. In appearance and nature, the Friar is depicted as an easy going man with a soft tongue and twinkling eyes. One might compare him to a paternal grandfather perhaps.

C2. One MC is dressed in a red shirt and wearing sunglasses. Another is rather large and wearing a black shirt with a bucket cap that is too small for him. The third MC is wearing a striped button up shirt and a baseball cap. He also has a space between his teeth.

Dan Rafuse

Anonymous said...

C3. The narrator of the prologue has an accent unlike any I have ever heard. He is speaking English but his accent is neither English nor American English. His pronunciations of some words are very different then what one might anticipate them sounding like. For instance, “bathed” is pronounced “bath-ed.” However, other words within the passage are pronounced very similarly to how they might be pronounced today. “Droghte” is pronounced “drought” and “March” is pronounced “March.” Words spoken in the passage that sound similar to today’s words allow readers and listeners to better decipher the meaning of the prologue. The prologue is intended to be an introduction to the setting of the tales. We know that it is the month of April and the birds are beginning to sing again. The end of the passage discusses pilgrimages to Canterbury. The martyrs on these pilgrimages were seeking something. Unfortunately, that something is unknown to the reader.

C4. In “The Pardoner’s Tale,” by Chaucer, the over lying elements of ethics, religion, and morality allow readers to have an insight on how Chaucer felt about religion and how it is run. This story is used to depict the material wants of even the finest of men. “The Pardoner’s Tale” is a story about three men who wish to kill Death. Death had been wreaking havoc on their town and had killed numerous people. On their quest to kill Death, the trio came across a treasure. They agreed to share it but greed got the best of them. They killed each other over the newly discovered gold. Their material desires led to their ultimate demise: death.
There are two ironic parts about this situation. The first is that Death was not actually killing the citizens. The citizens were, in fact, killing each other over a bag of money. They simply could not control their greed. This unfortunate flaw in human nature killed what was once a noble group of men. These noble and courageous men unfortunately turned into evil, egotistical monsters only concerned with the material world. The second ironic part is that the men were forgiven. Although they killed each other and become obsessed with the material world, the Pardoner still forgave them and allowed them to enter through the gates of heaven.
As a writer, Chaucer has the ability to voice his opinion in a creative way. In the case of “The Pardoner’s Tale,” Chaucer is voicing his distaste for religion and the morality of man. Chaucer does not believe that these men should have been allowed into heaven as easily as they were. His tone tells readers that he was completely disgusted with the moral values of mankind. One may readily believe that Chaucer intended to inform readers of his distaste with said moral values with this particular story.

Dan Rafuse

Anonymous said...

C5. 1. Hieronymous Bosch’s painting “The Garden of Earthly Delights” is an absolutely beautiful painting that holds a horrific message. Three panel painting depicts a different scene in each and they occur in chronological order. The first panel shows the simplicity of what life was like during the time of Adam and Eve. The grass was green, the sky was blue, and lust and desire had not even been thought of at this time. The middle panel is a depiction of what life was supposed to be like when the picture was painted. Human desire had taken over the minds of every person on Earth. They are behaving irrationally and sinning uncontrollably. The final panel contains the message that Bosch is attempting to deliver to viewers of the painting. This particular panel contains a fiery inferno in front of a black back drop. The blue skies and green grass are gone and have been replaced by this terrible scene of death and destruction. Bosch wants viewers to know that they are on a dreadful path of sin that will only lead them to certain misery.
2. Chaucer: Do you see what you have done?
Pardoner: Pardon me?
Chaucer: Do you see this painting? This imminent end is all because of you.
Pardoner: How so, my friend?
Chaucer: The sinners of the world are too readily forgiven. Had you not been so lenient with your power, our Earth may not have become such a catastrophe.
Pardoner: Do you not believe in second chances?
Chaucer: I believe in second chances. However, I do not believe in numerous opportunities for Redemption into the Holy Heavens. That simply creates chaos. Look at the middle of this painting. Don’t you see the atrocities?
Pardoner: I see the beauty of individualism and freedom.
Chaucer: Those people are committing sin without care because they know you will accept their confessions and allow them into heaven. This leniency will lead to destruction Pardoner.
Pardoner: I disagree. I believe humans will handle their time on Earth much more openly if their freedom is not impeded upon.
Chaucer: You are a fool. You are the reason for our demise.

Dan Rafuse

Christine Lattouf said...

Christine Lattouf
Due: 09-16-12
Period: B.

AP Literature: Beowulf & Chaucer


B1.
According to Glossary on poetry archive, a caesura is a strong pause within a poetic line.
An example from Beowulf that displays caesura:
“LO, praise of the prowess of people-kings
of spear-armed Danes, in days long sped,
we have heard, and what honor the athelings won!”
(Page 5)
This particular sample from Beowulf is a prefect example of caesura. There are distinct pauses and breaks with the poetic line. After LO there is a pause and then the poem begins. There is a pause between the “prowess” and “of”, “kings” and “spear”, “Danes” and “in”, “sped” and “we”, “heard” and “and”. The strongest pauses with the poetic lines chosen is the phase between “kings” and “of”, because if it is read out loud there is a need to pause for the poem to be correctly read. There seems to be two different ideas and structures that allow the pause to be present. There is a feeling that there should be a period after the pause but it is understood that there is a disconnection between the words “kings” and “of”.

B2.
According to the Britannica Encyclopedia, the term kenning means a group of words usually imagery that describes a noun, which is than used to name it.
Examples from Beowulf that display kenning:
War-gear (Page 12) - Armor
Slayer-of-souls (Page 10)- The devil
Word-hoard (Page 12) - The brain
The samples of words from the poem Beowulf are examples of kenning. Two or more words are combining to describe a noun. The example war-gear is linked to the weapons because weapons are used in war, but the word gear refers to something being worn for protection, which concludes that the word war-gear means armor. The slayer-of-souls is without doubt the devil. The devil destroys the souls those who give into the devils ways, and a slayer is someone who cause the death of a person, but in this case it is the killing of a soul. The word-hoard gives the impression of many words being stored some place or being able to speak, but in conclusion, word-hoard is possible the word for brain, because the brain stores information such as vocabulary.

Christine Lattouf said...

B3.
Passage from Beowulf:
“Up then quickly
the Weders'3 clansmen climbed ashore,
anchored their sea-wood, with armor clashing
and gear of battle: God they thanked
for passing in peace o'er the paths of the sea.”
(Page 15)
“He sang who knew
tales of the early time of man,
how the Almighty made the earth,
fairest fields enfolded by water,
set, triumphant, sun and moon
for a light to lighten the land-dwellers,
and braided bright the breast of earth
with limbs and leaves, made life for all
of mortal beings that breathe and move.
So lived the clansmen in cheer and revel
a winsome life, till one began
to fashion evils, that field of hell.
Grendel this monster grim was called,
march-riever5 mighty, in moorland living,
in fen and fastness; fief of the giants
the hapless wight a while had kept
since the Creator his exile doomed.”
(Page 8)
Anglo-Saxons were pagan, meaning that they were polytheistic and prayed to many gods. Christians recognized one God meaning that they are monotheistic. Anglo-Saxons asked their gods for assistance in material matters, such as the harvest. For success on the battlefield, an Anglo-Saxon worshiped the God of War. Christians, on the other hand, call upon their god for belief in spiritual matters.
When they thank God for passing in peace over the paths of the sea, we notice the connection between the two religions. The capitalized God meaning that there is one God but they thank God for passing over which is an Anglo Saxon belief to do. They believed that God, “the Almighty made the earth, fairest fields, sun, moon, etc., which is what the Christians believe in and they believe that there was one God that created everything. The typical Anglo Saxon believed that there were multiple gods, such as a god of moon, god of the sun, and etc. There is also the idea of “Hell” mentioned in the passage above, which is a Christian belief, that there are two places to go for eternal life: Heaven and Hell. Hell s the place of suffering and is where all evil ends up.

Christine Lattouf said...

C1:
The knight was a respectable man, who loved nobility, loyalty and honor, and liberality and the refinement of manners. He won the battle at Alexandria and was placed in a chair of honor. He had fought in fifteen battles and all three times he was in a dual he killed his foe. During this time period it is hard to believe that a knight would have survive fifteen battles and won all three duals. This part of the tale may have been exaggerated. He was very respectable to his lords during war. The knight had an outstanding reputation. He was true, complete, and a refined knight. He wore a tunic with possessed discoloration. The knight is described as being the typical heroic knight.
The monk rode out to supervise the estates of the monastery and he loved hunting. He was described as being a manly man who had many delicacies with him. He was the keeper for a subordinate monastery. The monk is described riding a horse as fast as a bird while hunting. His clothing is described as being lined with fur at the sleeves. He had a gold pin skillfully made for him. The monk is usually described as being the atypical monk. According to the online dictionary a monk typically lives under vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience. This monk is clearly not following the average life style of a monk. His head was bald and his face was anointed with oil. His head being anointed and bald is what we picture a typical monk to be. He was as fat as a lord but pleasing. His boots were soft, he was not pale, and loved a fat swan best of any roast. The monk is living above the typical monk and perhaps the typical person during this time period.
The noble Pardoner was a seller of indulgences. He was from the court of Rome. He sang very loudly "Com hider, love, to me!" The Pardoner had hair as yellow as wax. He had no hood, rode with style, and unbound hair. The pardoner is like a priest because they both forgive sins. One images a pardoner with a hood and bound hair with this pardoner clearly does not display. He had a miniature reproduction of St. Veronica’s sacred cloth, bearing the imprint of Jesus’ image upon his cap. His voice was like that of a goat. His voice gives one a feeling that it is loud, strong, and harsh. A pardoner should have a smooth, subtle, and forgiving voice, which this pardoner does not display. The narrator describes him as being possibly eunuch and a homosexual. There was no other pardon like him. His bag was a pillowcase. He had a cross, made of a brass-like alloy, full of stones. He had a glass filled with pig bones. With him tricks he made people his fools. He would sing in church to gain some silver from of the crowd.



C2:
One of the MC’s is wearing a colorful baby hat that was too small for his head, with a black t-shirt and black pants. His shirt says Maryknoll High School Japanese Club 2005. The next MC is wearing black sunglasses with a red t-shirt and jeans. His shirt says Dr. Pepper. The other MC is wearing a cream color hat with a brown and tan vertical stripe shirt and brown pants.

Christine Lattouf said...

C3:
The narrator has an Irish-Scottish accent. He puts an emphasis on the “s” sounds in words. In the word “Whan” the “w” seems silent and is not pronounced. Words with double “e” sounds like an “a” such as the word seeke. In the word “flour”, the “l” is not pronounced and there is an emphasis on the “o”. The narrator emphasizes the last word in every verse, which helps the listener follow along in the passage. The “y” in certain words is like an “i” and an “o” sounds like a “u”. “Thanne” is stressed and louder then any other words in the passage. “seeke” and “seke” sound a like even though they are spelled differently and probably have different meanings. The narrator pauses after “croppes” which is an example of caesura.


C4:
The Pardoners tale in relation to the Pardoner’s persona and role is quite the irony. The Pardoner is described as being showy, full of life, and extravagant. His yellow hair gives him the presences of light shining on his face and over his head like he is a saint. In the Pardoners Tale, Death is representing the Pardoner. Death is described as being dark, shady, and covered. The Pardoner presenting himself, as Death is a complete irony. When the Pardoner is describing death he maybe describing his inner persona, which is totally different from, has physical appearance.
There are conflicts with this use of irony because the three young men, who are trying to kill Death do not realize until it is too late, that Death in inevitable. The Pardoner is supposed to pardon sins, but in his tale he is representing himself through Death, and Death is the cause all of the sins, which are supposed to be pardoned by the pardoner.
In addition, the Pardoner is a false thief because he is creating the sins that the young want to be pardoned. God is supposed to forgive their sins for nothing but just the act of being sorry for their sins. Sins are not forgiven by giving the Pardoner money. Death is also described as being old and wanting to kill the young men because Death is jealous of their youth, and the young do not want to be as old as Death.
Chaucer’s tone in the Pardoner’s tale is very mysterious and dark. The Pardoner’s tale is about-facing Death, but Death will always wins, which gives the story a mysterious and dark tone. Chaucer’s tone when describing the Pardoners personality is courteous.
Chaucer seems to respect what the Pardoner does and gives him a happy and intelligent persona. Chaucer takes religion and morality seriously. He tells the Pardoners Tale show that buying one’s forgiveness is wrong. The Pardoner is death itself, wanting to consume its victim one by one. Death will always win in the end, and one cannot buy their way out of their sins, or Death will be even closer than before.

Christine Lattouf said...


C5:
1. The scene on the left is depicting a biblical story in the Old Testament by the name of “Adam and Eve”. This famous story represents how humans on earth came to be and why they commit sins. In between Adam and Eve is the Lord, who is possibly blessing Eve. The scene is illustrating the past time and how life began on earth. The next scene is depicting the present day, where the earth is populated and peaceful. This scene is the larger because it is the most important and longest time period. It is important to be in the middle, because then the scene has a little from the left and right scene. The right scene depicts the possible future of torment, pain, and agony that we made face as sinners. The future will change if we are truly sorry for our sins and stop buying forgiveness from the pardoner.

2. Chaucer: Pardoner, have you looked at this painting? Come see!
Pardoner: Hold on, I am forgiving this person for their sins.
Chaucer: Hurry!
Pardoner: What a remarkable painting.
Chaucer: I enjoy the scene on the left. You know Pardoner, this scene is from the bible.
Pardoner: Why yes it is.
Chaucer: It is the story of Adam and Eve.
Pardoner: Yes. Adam and Eve are the reason why I work as a pardoner. They were the first to have sinned because they disobeyed God.
Chaucer: But the middle scene has to be my favorite. It is full of life and happiness.
Pardoner: Why is it your favorite?
Chaucer: There are so many people I could talk to, listen to, and write about their greatest tale to complete my unfinished story called Canterbury Tales.
Pardoner: Well, I prefer the scene on the right.
Chaucer: That scene is terrible. Why would you like such a thing?
Pardoner: I would want to be there to help the people who are suffering from the pain of Death, which was first caused by their sins.
Chaucer: Well that is very kind of you pardoner. How are you able to forgive their sins? Isn’t Gods duties to forgive sins?
Pardoner: I am licensed to sell indulgences and stop questioning my power.
Chaucer: Many people that I have written about could use your help.
Pardoner: Send them to me.
Chaucer: Will do.

Sources:
Ross, David. "English History." Britain Express. Britain Express, n.d. Web. 16 Sep 2012.
"Caesura." The Archive Poetry. Poetry Archive, 2010. Web. 16 Sep 2012.
"Kenning." Britannica Encyclopedia. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 2012. Web. 16 Sep 2012.

Naomi said...

Beowulf and Chaucer Assignment: Post 1 Naomi Stuffers
9/17/12
Period B

Beowulf:

1. A caesura is a strong pause usually within the middle of a verse, and is often marked by a double vertical line. On page 10 of Beowulf, there is an example of a caesura: “Almighty they knew not, Doomsman of Deeds and dreadful Lord, nor Heaven’s-Helmet heeded they ever, Wielder-of-Wonder. -- Woe for that man who in harm and hatred hales his soul to fiery embraces; -- nor favor nor change awaits he ever” (pg. 10). The purpose of caesurae is to create a scene that is a bit more dramatic or emotional for the readers. In this case, the dramatic feel is heightened not only because of the pauses, but also because of the situation. The fear of being sent to the “fiery embraces” of Hell was very real in this point in history. The mandatory pauses coupled with the frightful context make for a very theatrical poem.

2. A kenning is a compressed metaphor or description, where an object is described in a two-word phrase. For example, on page 7 of the poem, the simple kenning, “mead-house,” is a way to describe a bar or a pub. On page 11, the author used “wave-walker” as a way to describe one of Hygelac’s thanes as a sailor. Sailors, in essence, are traveling the ocean by sailing or walking on the waves, therefore this makes sense. The kenning, “death-shadow,” on page 10 can be interpreted as some sort of devil or grim reaper meant to follow those whose death is imminent.

3. Anglo-Saxon is a term that describes the period in history after the Romans had left Britain, therefore leaving the area susceptible to attacks and inevitable conquest. This was a time when Germanic tribes had invaded the southern and eastern regions of Britain, and brought along not only a new people, but also a new culture and value system. These values include strength and valor mixed in with the enforcement of religion. Originally a Pagan population, the Anglo-Saxons converted to Christianity around the 7th century. With this in mind, Beowulf carefully conveys the development of this culture, along with the rise of Christianity, through its use of realistic yet magical tales.

The Anglo-Saxons were said to have developed a moral code called the “9 English Values” that can be seen throughout their history. These values include: “courage and selflessness, truth, honor, fidelity, discipline and duty, hospitality, industriousness, self-reliance, and perseverance” (englandandenglishhistory.com). In Beowulf there is a particular passage that characterizes these values, “So becomes it a youth to quit him well with his father’s friends, by fee and gift, that to aid him, aged, in after days, come warriors willing, should war draw nigh, liegemen loyal: by lauded deeds shall and earl have honor in every clan” (pg. 5). This one passage alone demonstrates five of the nine values: honor as an earl, discipline as a son, duty as a warrior, self-reliance as a man, and hospitality towards a father. The reinforcement of these values throughout an Anglo-Saxon’s life is quite evident, as we can see through Old English literature like Beowulf.

By the 7th century, the Anglo-Saxon population had been successfully converted from Paganism to Christianity. During these times, religion was extremely important and had a vast influence on their everyday lives, art, and literature. In Beowulf, the author wrote a rather beautiful verse, “He sang who knew tales of the early time of man, how the Almighty made the earth, fairest fields enfolded by water, set, triumphant, sun and moon for a light to lighten the land-dwellers, and braided bright the breast of earth with limbs and leaves, made life for all of mortal beings that breathe and move” (pg. 8). In this verse, the author is describing God’s creation of earth through Christian beliefs. The choice of words lets the readers truly feel the love and respect for God that was common in Anglo-Saxon culture at this time.

Naomi said...

Naomi Stuffers
Beowulf and Chaucer Assignment Post 2


The Anglo-Saxon age in Britain reigned for approximately 600 years from 449 to 1066 AD. Within the 600 years, a culture of strict values and ever-present religion created a very distinct period of history. It also inspired Old English literature such as the epic poem, Beowulf, and the master-craft of “sea-wood” or ships that are seen throughout Anglo-Saxon art. Throughout this time, a rich and interesting society was developed that helped shape the future of modern England.

Chaucer: The Canterbury Tales

1. Among the twenty-three pilgrims that Chaucer introduces are three very interesting characters: the Prioress, the Wife of Bath, and The Parson. The Prioress, a nun by the name of Madame Eglantine, was the first woman to be introduced as a character in The Canterbury Tales. She was described as having a very humble, modest, and loving personality. For example, Chaucer wrote, “She wolde wepe, if that she saugh a mous Kaught in a trappe, if it were deed or bledde” (line 144-145). In other words, the prioress would cry in sadness even if she saw a mouse caught in a trap, dead, or bleeding. Although she is a nun, she is fluent in French and has impeccable manners and cleanliness. For example, she never let a piece of food fall from her lips and she always ate with great care. The audience could deduce from this that she might have grown up in a good family that had enough money to send her to school. As for her clothes, she wore a “wympul,” a type of headdress that covers the head and neck, a graceful cloak, and a beaded bracelet. On this bracelet was a golden brooch, engraved with the letter “A” and the Latin phrase, “Amor vincit omnia,” meaning, “Love conquers all.” She is described as having glass-like, gray eyes, a fine nose, a broad forehead, and small, red lips.

The Wife of Bath is quite the Renaissance woman. Although she is slightly deaf, she is a skilled clothes-maker that few have surpassed. She is a very proud and respectable woman, as one can tell from her choice of dress. She often wears her best headdresses, fine scarlet stockings, and new shoes. Her appearance is described as, “Boold was hir face, and fair, and reed of hewe,” “Gat-toothed was she…” and “A foot-mantel aboute hir hipes large” (line 460, 470, 474). These lines meaning that she had a bold, red face, large hips, and was rather gap-toothed. However, her appearance did not stop her from having five husbands in her lifetime, not counting the lovers she had in her youth. In the art of love, the Wife of Bath was very well versed.

The 17th person to be introduced by Chaucer is the Parson. The Parson is a very poor, but very good man. He is knowledgeable in his study of religion and patient in the face of adversity. Chaucer wrote, “Unto his povre parishhens aboute Of his offryng and eek of his substuance” (line 490-491). Even though the Parson had little income, he always gave some of it to his poor parishioners. He is a very dedicated and humble man, who never looked down on anyone no matter of his or her circumstances. Chaucer even wrote, “A better preest I trowe, that nowher noon ys” (line 526) meaning that he had never known a better priest.

2. In this “dope” rap version of The Prologue, there are three MCs that bring their own style to the table. In the order of appearance, there is a man with a black shirt and plaid hat, another man in a red shirt and sunglasses, and, finally, a man in a striped brown shirt. The first man seems to be the tallest, is wearing a shirt that says: “High School Japanese Club 2008”, and is sporting a light blue and gray plaid hat. The second man is in the middle in terms of height, but is wearing a red Dr. Pepper shirt and looks confident in his sunglasses. The third man is the shortest of them, and is wearing a brown striped shirt and alternates between wearing and not wearing a hat throughout the video.

Naomi said...

Naomi Stuffers
Beowulf and Chaucer Assignment Post 3


3. The narrator’s voice sounds distinctly European and is very similar to either a Dutch or a German accent. He also seems to stress the “s” sound in many of his words. The beginning starts off sounding very story-like, almost like how one would say “once upon a time” to begin a fairy tale. The emphases that the narrator put on certain words throughout the passage further added to this story-like feel. However, due to the nature of the Middle English and the pronunciation of the words, it sounded like a completely different language.

4. The Pardoner is a very fascinating character in his own right. He makes his money by preaching and using sly words to get people to buy his indulgences or pardons. Moreover, he preaches about gluttony and avarice, yet he isn’t exactly frugal with his own money. His need to keep up with the latest trends causes him to show quite how hypocritical he is. However, his persona juxtaposed to his tale produces a very ironic dynamic.

The Pardoner’s tale tells of three men who, in their search for Death, get exactly what they were looking for when they come across a wonderful bounty. Their greed for the bushels of gold causes them to conspire against each other in hopes of keeping the prize for themselves. This is so painfully ironic because, although the Pardoner preaches against greed, he is guilty of this act, as well. By taking the money of naïve people in exchange for trinkets that are supposed to keep them safe from harm, the Pardoner is doing exactly what the characters in his tale were doing. Benefiting from the death or fear of death of unsuspecting people is both the Pardoner and the men’s goal. This irony definitely complements the tale because the readers will be able to draw the parallel between the characters and this will make the overall feel somewhat humorous.

Through Chaucer’s portrayal of the Pardoner and the three friends in the tale, one can tell that his thoughts on religion are a little cynical. In both the tale and the description of the Pardoner, Chaucer illustrates these characters to be corrupt and greedy. The Pardoner, although a religious man, is guilty of soiling the hope that religion brings to people by letting greed dictate his actions. So, the readers can probably deduce that Chaucer is a bit skeptical about religion and morality. However, his cynicism might not be towards religion as a whole, but towards the people who practice the religion. To clarify, the idea of religion can be pure, but the people behind the religion are more susceptible to corruption.

5. In the left panel, Bosch illustrated the meeting of Adam and Eve in their Garden of Eden. Surrounding them is a setting that appears to be very fantastical and imaginative, befitting that of Eden. This magical environment is complemented by the story of Adam and Eve, which creates an illusive and almost untouchable feel to this part of the painting. However, in the middle panel, one can see that the story has run its course and has created a world where people’s desires rule their decisions. Within this panel, there are nude people, male and female alike, enjoying sexual pleasures, uncommonly large fruit, and taking part in certain rituals. The middle panel seems to be depicting a life without consequence, where men and women can go around letting their desires and lust take the better of them. However, in the right painting, Bosch seems to have created his own version of Hell. In contrast to the bright and beautiful paintings preceding it, the third panel is very dark and slightly disturbing. There are people being tortured, eaten, and thrown into pits of fire. One can assume that this painting, in its entirety, is showing the effects of Eve’s decision to go against God’s warnings. From Adam and Eve came a generation of people full of desire and “sin.” These people are then punished for their sins through the tortures of Hell.

Naomi said...

Naomi Stuffers
Beowulf and Chaucer Assignment Post 4


RAFT Style Conversation between the Pardoner and Chaucer

In modern day Madrid, Spain, a quite peculiar conversation is about to go on between a writer and one of his creations. However, there seems to be something odd about the two characters… They look as if they had been plucked right out of Middle England. Luckily, in this case, there are speaking in modern day English.

Standing in front of the painting, “The Garden of Earthly Delights,” in the Prado Museum, where the painting is held today, the Pardoner is busy fixing his waxy-colored hair. So busy, in fact, that he did not even notice that Geoffrey Chaucer had quietly sidled his way next to him. Chaucer watches the Pardoner with a look of paternal love mixed in with slight distaste.

CHAUCER: As a religious man, Pardoner, what is your take on this painting?

The Pardoner looks up, startled by this unknown man. The Pardoner surveys him and decides that, for reasons unknown, he trusts him. He looks back at the painting to formulate his opinion.

PARDONER: Of course, this painting depicts the trials of Adam and Eve, and the consequences they and their future generations are bound to experience. As you can see, as a result of Eve’s indiscretion, there are lust-driven individuals running rampant without a care in the world. However, their carefree life soon comes to an end when they have to pay for their sins in Hell.
Taking in what the Pardoner has said, Chaucer looks thoughtfully at the painting. However, the Pardoner, sensing an opportunity, continues on…

PARDONER: It’s such a shame… All of those poor souls could have been saved from the fiery pits of Hell. I pride myself in knowing that I can help those kinds of people and grant them salvation.

The Pardoner takes a sly glance at Chaucer to see how his act is holding up, but, by now, Chaucer knows what the Pardoner is trying to do. Nevertheless, Chaucer keeps up the act.

CHAUCER: How exactly can you grant us salvation, good sir? At what price are your indulgences?

PARDONER: Price? Who said anything about price? I take donations, my friend. Of course, the better the donation, the better the pardon.

CHAUCER: Ah, I see…

The look of distaste is back in Chaucer’s eyes, but the Pardoner does not notice.

PARDONER: For a couple of pounds of gold or some jewel-encrusted silverware, I can grant you an afterlife of eternal bliss. I can grant you a type of life akin to the life in this middle panel; an afterlife where you don’t have to worry about being sent to Hell and tortured horribly for your sins.

Taking in a deep breath, Chaucer faces the Pardoner and begins…

CHAUCER: So, you expect me to believe that if I pay you to pardon my sins, I will get a peaceful afterlife? It’s people like you who are corrupting the very essence of religion, Pardoner. Accepting bribes and money to give false hope to people is a horrible act. In the end, they will probably all end up in the very Hell this painting depicts. You, as well, will probably meet many of those you pardoned when your time comes.

The Pardoner’s face wears an expression of anger and surprise. Utterly humiliated, he turns on his heel and walks straight out of the room, without a single word. Chaucer, on the other hand, turns to face the painting, with a self-satisfied look on his face.

CHAUCER: I never liked him anyway…

The End.

Works Cited:


England and English History. England and English History. N.p., 2012. Web. 15 Sept. 2012

Amanda W said...

Amanda Ward
Beowulf Assignment

B1:
Caesura is a pause in between lines of poetry. In Beowulf the use of caesura is seen throughout the work to create a pause and add to a previous thought. “Beowulf spake, -- his breastplate gleamed, war-net woven by wit of the smith: --” To show in detail what Beowulf is saying, the author adds a caesura to create a pause. The audience will now take a moment to think about what was just said. This particular caesura describes Beowulf’s appearance. Caesuras are shown by adding two lines before and after the pause.

B2:
Kenning is a descriptive phrase that is used in place of a word. Kenning was used in older ages when specific words were not created yet. Instead, people would create an expression to describe the noun or idea they wanted to get across. “LO, praise of the prowess of people-kings”. The phrase “people- kings” is translated as a kingdom where both the people and kings lived. “At the banquet soon to be described, Hrothgar sat in the south or chief high-seat, and Beowulf oppo- site to him.” The ‘“chief high-seat” could be describing the king’s throne. “Now saw from the cliff a Scylding clansman, a warden that watched the water-side”. In this phrase the “water-side” is equivalent to the seaside.

B3:

The Anglo- Saxon culture is used throughout the tale of Beowulf. Within the culture of the Anglo-Saxons the idea of a chief, or king, was present along with a warrior who brought respect to their kingdom by accomplishing heroic deeds. This is the same in Beowulf. The strong tie to warrior, or hero, and king is a big theme in both the Anglo- Saxon culture and Beowulf. In the book of Beowulf, the warrior, who is Beowulf himself, kills the demons that terrorize Denmark. The defeat of an antagonist is an Anglo- Saxon idea. “Blessed God out of his mercy this man hath sent to Danes of the West, as I ween indeed, against horror of Grendel. I hope to give the good youth gold for his gallant thought. Be thou in haste, and bid them hither, clan of kinsmen, to come before me; and add this word, -- they are welcome guests to folk of the Danes." In this quotation Beowulf is praised by the chief. By killing the demon, Grendel, he has earned the respect of the Danes. The church was closely tied to the king in the Anglo- Saxon culture. At this time the king did not have a huge amount of power, it was split between church and king. “The Lord endowed him, the Wielder of Wonder, with world's renown.” The warrior was said to be sent by God to help the Danes. The king claimed this and in the end if the warrior was to defeat the evils of the land then great respect, praise, and gifts would be rewarded to him. Beowulf portrays this idea throughout the whole tale.

Amanda W said...

Amanda Ward
Beowulf Assignment

B1:
Caesura is a pause in between lines of poetry. In Beowulf the use of caesura is seen throughout the work to create a pause and add to a previous thought. “Beowulf spake, -- his breastplate gleamed, war-net woven by wit of the smith: --” To show in detail what Beowulf is saying, the author adds a caesura to create a pause. The audience will now take a moment to think about what was just said. This particular caesura describes Beowulf’s appearance. Caesuras are shown by adding two lines before and after the pause.

B2:
Kenning is a descriptive phrase that is used in place of a word. Kenning was used in older ages when specific words were not created yet. Instead, people would create an expression to describe the noun or idea they wanted to get across. “LO, praise of the prowess of people-kings”. The phrase “people- kings” is translated as a kingdom where both the people and kings lived. “At the banquet soon to be described, Hrothgar sat in the south or chief high-seat, and Beowulf oppo- site to him.” The ‘“chief high-seat” could be describing the king’s throne. “Now saw from the cliff a Scylding clansman, a warden that watched the water-side”. In this phrase the “water-side” is equivalent to the seaside.

B3:

The Anglo- Saxon culture is used throughout the tale of Beowulf. Within the culture of the Anglo-Saxons the idea of a chief, or king, was present along with a warrior who brought respect to their kingdom by accomplishing heroic deeds. This is the same in Beowulf. The strong tie to warrior, or hero, and king is a big theme in both the Anglo- Saxon culture and Beowulf. In the book of Beowulf, the warrior, who is Beowulf himself, kills the demons that terrorize Denmark. The defeat of an antagonist is an Anglo- Saxon idea. “Blessed God out of his mercy this man hath sent to Danes of the West, as I ween indeed, against horror of Grendel. I hope to give the good youth gold for his gallant thought. Be thou in haste, and bid them hither, clan of kinsmen, to come before me; and add this word, -- they are welcome guests to folk of the Danes." In this quotation Beowulf is praised by the chief. By killing the demon, Grendel, he has earned the respect of the Danes. The church was closely tied to the king in the Anglo- Saxon culture. At this time the king did not have a huge amount of power, it was split between church and king. “The Lord endowed him, the Wielder of Wonder, with world's renown.” The warrior was said to be sent by God to help the Danes. The king claimed this and in the end if the warrior was to defeat the evils of the land then great respect, praise, and gifts would be rewarded to him. Beowulf portrays this idea throughout the whole tale.

Amanda W said...

Amanda Ward
Chaucer Assignment
C1:
Chaucer describes an array of characters that have uniquely different personalities. One pilgrim is called the Knight. He is described as a polite noble who is generous and mannerly. He is a kind man that has only good things to say about everyone around him. The Knight has a son who is a squire. Like father like son they both love to love. The Knight also has a servant, or Yeoman. He reminds me of the famed character Robin Hood because he wears a green outfit and carries a bow and arrow. The Knight is very compassionate for other characters. He seems to feel their pain.
The Prioress is another pilgrim who acts as if she is a queen. Although she is a kind, well- dressed nun. Her style is known as “fashionably out of date” and she does not seem like she possesses the qualities of a nun. She is not in the royal family but tries to be a part of them. She is beautiful and of French descent. The Prioress also loves animals and feeds her dogs milk and meat. When a mouse is injured she weeps which shows compassion for animals. The Prioress is a kind, fashionable nun with a big heart.
Another pilgrim is the Wife of Bath. She is not a typical woman of the time. The Wife of Bath has been through a lot of romantic relationships and prides herself of that. She, like the Knight, loves to love! With a passion for arguing, the Wife of Bath has a somewhat masculine personality. She loves to talk and has a hard appearance about her. Her unique appearance is defined by a gap in her front teeth and a deaf ear. By traveling around Europe many times, even to Jerusalem, the Wife of Bath is a knowledgeable woman. The Wife of Bath has had much experience in her lifetime whether it falls under the category of love or travel.

C2:
One man is wearing a plaid fishing hat, another man is wearing a red shirt and sunglasses, and the last man is wearing a tan hat and striped shirt.

C3: -

Amanda W said...

Amanda Ward
C4:
The irony surrounding the Pardoner’s persona and the Pardoner’s tale is based on greed. The Pardoner’s tale tells the story of three men who turned on each other for riches and greed. They go searching for Death and end up finding it through killing each other. Towards the end of the tale the Pardoner reveals a solution to greed. If one goes to him and pays a fee he will pardon all sins in one’s name. The irony is the Pardoner is greedy himself. Instead of finding an honorable job he chooses to con people out of their money. He preaches that greediness is a horrible thing but in reality he is the greediest of all!
The irony within this tale compliments the irony of the Pardoner. It gives the tale a humorous twist and almost acts as an advertisement to the Pardoner. The irony within the irony is very confusing but rewarding at the very least. The unexpected comedy in this tale creates a tone based on humor. By creating a tale with irony in it then capitalizing on such irony within his own persona, the Pardoner reels in his audience. The placement of the story then his advertising ways he creates an interest. Chaucer shaped the Pardoner to be a sneaky man with a sarcastic vibe.
Chaucer has a sarcastic attitude towards religion and morality. Most of his characters are out of the ordinary, especially for his time. The Wife of Bath has been with many men which is sinful during that time period and unusual. The Pardoner is conning people to relieve them of their sins when he himself is sinful. Chaucer’s attitude and humor would be considered vulgar back in the times of purity. Religion was valued and so was morality. Chaucer views morality as a light subject. He does not create characters with perfect personalities or perfect lives. He creates flawed characters with strong personalities. This sarcastic tone is refreshing and humorous. Chaucer is a different kind of writer who has the audacity to write against the ordinary in his pieces of work.

Amanda W said...

Amanda Ward
C5:
In the first panel it seems as though two women are receiving advice from someone who is either wealthier or more spiritual then them. The person the two women are talking to is wearing an orange robe and has a knowledgeable appearance. In the second panel everyone is jolly and having a good time. People are dancing, riding horses, and conversing. It is like some sort of outdoor party. In the third panel there is war and destruction. It is darker than the other two panels. There are more contraptions and weapons. People are fleeing or already dead. Overall, the first panel shows knowledge, the second panel shows happiness, and the third panel shows darkness and destruction. Looking at the painting as a whole, the first panel represents the past, the second panel represents the present, and the last panel represents the future.
RAFT:
Chaucer and Pardoner are discussing the painting.
First Panel:
Chaucer: “Well, Pardoner, my friend, in this panel I believe these women are seeking advice from a trustworthy soul. What a beautiful piece, the somber colors of the background draw attention to the bright white people! The animals appear to be sporadically placed throughout the scene. But I do appreciate the wisdom being portrayed in this panel.”
Pardoner: “I’ve seen better pieces. The darkness is not present in this panel so therefore it does not interest me. There are too many animals and innocence, not enough mystery and death. It has not captured my attention.”
Second Panel:
Chaucer: “What a chaotic feel this panel has. Everyone seems to be enjoying themselves, dancing and frolicking around. It seems much happier than the first panel. Look, dear Pardoner, at all the animals running around in circles. How strange! The rock formations are colorful and jolly. There are dozens of people and dozens of interactions in this piece. There is so much going on, there is so much to look at and observe! If I were to choose a panel to be present in, this would be it!”
Pardoner: “Once again this panel is not quite my taste. The crowds make me uncomfortable and the people are out of their minds. If there were some crime or mischief in this panel I would be much more intrigued. All I see are nude people romping around! What is the fun in that?”
Third Panel:
Chaucer: “Oh my, this panel frightens me. There is so much destruction. All the wonderful people are dead! Who would ever want to portray such horrible things!”
Pardoner: “Now this is my kind of artwork! The darkness of the skies and the brown color in the ground makes a nice backdrop. The people are all in desperation, I love the feel of this painting. Look there, Chaucer, look at the lights shining from the decapitating buildings! You know what Chaucer? I believe these panels represent something bigger than just three different pieces. I believe they represent the past, the present, and the future.”
Chaucer: “Why I think you are right Pardoner. They do represent that! If that is the case then I better enjoy life while I can. Well, I have to go now Pardoner. Nice talking to you and I hope to see you again!”
Pardoner: “Alright Chaucer, we will have to catch dinner sometime this weekend, have good night.”

Anonymous said...

B1- A caesura is a literary tool used by authors and poets to achieve a slight feeling of fragmentation or interruption in their writing. A caesura denotes an audible pause that breaks up a line or verse. It may also be used to mark a change in audience, as if to denote an aside or interrupting thought or outburst by the author. Caesura may be created by using several different kinds of punctuation including a comma, a semicolon, or a dash. The location of the caesura in the sentence indicates which of the tree varieties it is. Initial, medial, and terminal caesuras found used at the beginning, middle, and end of the sentence or verse, respectively. On page 22, line 6, of the online translation of Beowulf the author is describing the terrible deeds that are done during war and how the listener shall be cursed for participating in such atrocities when he suddenly breaks with the dramatic and emotional description to say “— I boast not of it! —“. The interruption of discourse effectively interrupts the pattern and sensation of its surrounding words and though an audible pause is not created, a clear momentary shift occurs. The reader or listener may be caught just slightly off guard by the small outburst, but then is soon returned to the literary moment when the author resumes his depiction of war and suffering.

B. Dague

Anonymous said...

B2- Kenning is a strategy used by writers and poets, especially those of the Anglo-Saxon tradition, which is characterized by the use of multiple words to name or rename a single noun. This practice was used originally to describe something for which there was simply no name yet, but it soon became common for writers to employ kenning as a means of creating diversity in their writing. The author of Beowulf uses kenning consistently throughout the poem and the result is a more unique and descriptive imagery filled literary work. On page 6, line 14 of the online translation text, the author uses the phrase “weeds of battle” in a series along with “weapons of war” and “breastplate and blade”. Though the reader may be unfamiliar with the term “weeds of battle” it can be deduced that they are some sort of tool or weapon that will help the soldiers of the passage be successful in the voyage that they are preparing to carry out. As suggested by the usage of an object as common as “weeds”, these items are probably fairly standard and numerous in a battle situation such as that of the poem. Several of the phrases of this poem constructed by kenning have to deal directly with matters of the sea. This is likely due to the enormous cultural influence of the ocean on the Anglo-Saxons. One such phrase, used to describe a sailor on page 11, line 8, is a “wave-walker”. The author is calling for a crew to be assembled and in this band he wishes to have a variety of folks, including a sailor to be “bade make ready” for the large undertaking implied at this stage of the writing. On the same page and only ten lines later the author uses the term “sea wood” in place of “ship”. Though the word “ship” appears at other locations in the poem, it is possible that the author chose these words for effect or when translated this phrase was left in select places to keep the most authentic feel possible. The usage of such pairings of words increases the intrigue of the writing and offers the reader a glimpse into the culture and history of the writer and his piece.

B. Dague

Anonymous said...

B3- Though the precise origins of Beowulf are unclear, the themes from both the Anglo-Saxon and Christian societies represented in the writing are strong, with the Anglo-Saxon imagery and plotline being the dominant force in the poem. The very first line of the epic (translated) reads, “LO, praise the prowess of the people-kings” which was a very mainstream value of the Anglo-Saxons. The kings of that time period were widely respected, adored, and adorned by those who they ruled over. The king was an idol for many people, especially soldiers of the time, and it was common that they “promised to be loyal and obedient to the king” (“Beowulf”). Moreover, as the epic of Beowulf continues it is clear that a battle is developing. There is a calling to arms of sort and a readying of a crew by having them be “bade make ready” (pg. IV) along with the presence of “weapons of war and weeds of battle, with breastplate and blade” (pg. II) to signal the impending fight. This conquering mindset and thirst for battle is characteristic of the warriors of the Anglo-Saxon “culture of ancient Germanic peoples, where wars were so common that many men held steady jobs as fighters” (“Beowulf”). Beowulf can be considered a terrific source for an accurate look into the “tradition of heroic epic poetry describing ancient kings and warriors” (“Anglo Saxons”) which was so characteristic of this warrior culture and society.
Juxtaposed intriguingly with the mountain of Anglo-Saxon references are a few that stem from the rising Christian culture and were to suggest that this work was created, if not written down, “sometime between 700 and 950” (“Beowulf”). The most predominant clue as to the author’s insight to Christianity is his portrayal of God as a protector and the creator of all that is in the story. “the shelter of God” (pg. I) is looked to by the warrior from whom we get the title, displaying the belief of the author and signaling the fusion of the two systems of belief. In addition, the monster, Grendel, which Beowulf is sent to slaughter in this epic is referred to as the “kin of Cain” (pg. II), another strong suggestion that the Christian culture was at play at least in the back of the mind of the anonymous author.
Sources:
"Anglo–Saxons." The Greenhaven Encyclopedia of The Middle Ages. Thomas Streissguth. Ed. Bruno Leone. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 2003. 30-31. Gale World History In Context. Web. 16 Sep. 2012.
"Beowulf." U*X*L Encyclopedia of World Mythology. Vol. 1. Detroit: UXL, 2009. 177-182. Gale World History In Context. Web. 16 Sep. 2012.

B. Dague

Anonymous said...

C1- The lines of Chaucer’s introduction to The Canterbury Tales are teeming with rich and extraordinarily specific descriptions of his twenty nine main characters in order to effectively set the scene before the journey of these pilgrims begins. The Knight is the very first character who Chaucer chooses to introduce. This sequence is curious since he is one of the very few sincerely good hearted and honest members included in this the voyage. This can be determined from Chaucer’s recounting of the several times in the life of this character when he did chivalrous, courageous, or kind things. In addition to citing specific events in the knight’s life, Chaucer continually uses words like “nevere” when discussing the frequency with which he had fallen short in his duty, and “everemore” to describe the consistency and thoroughness of his honor and goodness. He also points out that the knight was “nat gay” in his simple and life worn dress, signaling a complete lack of vanity in his personality. In his brief introduction to the knight Chaucer conveys a complete sense of dependability and goodness in this character.
In glaring contrast to the characterization of the knight is that of the Merchant. The second line of this introduction, “In motley gown, and high on horse he sat,” is entirely devoted to describing the vanity of this individual. The following two lines further this impression by describing the particular exotic delicacies which adorn his person. As soon as Chaucer has built a mental physical image of this individual, he moves straight on to tell the reader that the merchant does, in fact, think quite highly of himself, having developed the practice of “Sownynge always th’encrees of his wynnyng” or “Stressing the times when he had won, not lost”. In addition to vanity, Chaucer reveals to the reader that the merchant possesses the trait of greediness. He explains that though he was in debt, he was careful never to admit it and to continuously use his skills in making money, the details of which are unclear, to try to turn a profit. Finally, Chaucer admits that he “noot how men hym calle” or “can’t recall” his name, suggesting that in addition to being a vain and greedy man, he is also unimportant enough as to be easily forgotten.
The final character which Chaucer gives introduction to is the Pardoner. This individual is perhaps the most interesting character due to the intense imagery Chaucer provides to accompany the man. The passage used to describe the pardoner is a bit ironic in that it begins with the adjective of “gentil” or “noble”, but soon transitions into slightly less savory descriptions. His hair is said to be “driplets” and “strings” which hang separately and limply down his back. This is an image of dirty, greasy, and generally unkempt hair that suggests to the reader either a personality of the same sort or perhaps that he has recently been up to something which could result in him being dirty. The pardoner was also described to have “glarynge eyen… as an hare”. These eyes may be black if they are similar to those of a hare, which suggests perhaps a darkness of the soul or mind of the individual. Chaucer also describes in detail his impression of his character and his striking lack of masculinity. This is a curious thing to note and furthers the reader’s impression of his oddity and uneasy queerness. Furthermore, Chaucer states that the pardons which he has brought from Rome are “al hoot” or “all hot”, which implies that they were, at least figuratively, stolen from his clients. This suggestion of trickery is supported by the statement that he has been known to recently have “gathered more money…with flattery and equal japes” while “he made the parson and the rest his apes”. Chaucer closes his introduction by noting that when it came time to collect money from those of the church, the Pardoner knew well how to put on a good show, so to speak, to “wynne silver”.

B. Dague

Anonymous said...

C2- In this ridiculous rendering of Chaucer’s Prologue of The Canterbury Tales, three relatively young men dance around like lunatics and rap the words of the epic poem. Though they all wear casual or “street” clothes, each has their own distinct style. One of the men is dressed in faded blue jeans and an old red t-shirt. The true defining element of his outfit, however, is his awesome pair of sunglasses, which he rocks. The second band mate sports an equally casual t-shirt, this time black. He pairs it with black pants, which would give him a rather shadowy look if it were not for the humorous white and blue plaid hat he is sporting. The final member of the trio is perhaps the most stylish, but also the most monotone. He pairs brown slacks with a brown and white striped collared shirt over a brown t-shirt. Though their outfits are nothing special and actually look quite terrible together, their rap is hilarious and entertainingly presented, offering the audience a new take on what could be considered by some a rather dry reading.

B. Dague

Anonymous said...

C3- The voice of the narrator in this audio clip is very soothing, despite its rough Anglo-Saxon words with their fierce consonant patters. The vowels that are present are carefully drawn out; creating a rhythm that is quite smooth. The pausing that occurs between certain words is not altogether different from the way that modern people pause in between a series of adjectives. This caesura of sorts alerts the listener to the upcoming noun, increasing the chance that we will hear it and, if we can comprehend it, draw more meaning from the passage. The overall tone of the clip is relaxed and almost reminiscent of a past event, lacking the passion or suspense of a current or particularly tense situation. From this the listener can infer that a sort of story is being recounted. In addition, the first third of the clip sounds as though it contains many possessive nouns and pronouns, furthering the conclusion that this is in fact a story with particular characters, objects, or a certain setting.

B. Dague

Anonymous said...

C4- The way in which Chaucer subtly and cleverly inserts irony into The Pardoner’s Tale creates a dynamic which is both comical and extremely thought provoking. In the Introduction, Chaucer asserts that the Pardoner, despite his quirkiness and apparent oddity, is a person who values himself greatly and has true belief in what he does. He is very much an advocate for the service which he is able to provide to people. The tale that he tells, however, is strikingly in contrast to the values which he promotes through his livelihood. The moral of his story, which he elaborates on specifically after he has told the tale, is that mankind brings Death upon itself. The story illustrates the fact that those who sin will likely, in the end, pay for their wrongs with their life. This revelation calls into question the validity of his profession and begs the question that if sinners will pay such a steep toll for their wrongs in the end, what good is paying worldly tolls to a man to try to have them absolved? The moral lesson on display in this tale seriously undercuts the role of the pardoner and suggests to the audience that they should reconsider being a patron of his if they will one day still indeed need to pay the ultimate price.
The three individuals in the Pardoner’s Tale are clearly hugely immoral individuals who pay the greatest price, that of their life, for their wrongs. The most apparent result of the story, with the exception of all three men dying, is that the trio fails to acquire the treasure. With that as well as the typical price of a pardon in mind, the reader realizes that these three men truly stood no chance at being forgiven. Their deeds are precisely what prevented them from reaching the wealth which they desired so deeply, and this lack of gold in turn cost them the ability to obtain a pardon. This implied syllogism all but directly states that no immoral man may ever acquire a true and full pardon. The irony here is rich due to the fact that the only people who are ever in need of such a pardon are those who exhibit immorality. The inconsistency caused by the examined logic effectively renders the role of the Pardoner in society useless.
This revelation makes Chaucer’s motivation for the deliverance of such a message by this particular character a great mystery. By examining the tone used in the piece it can be concluded that this motivation is tied in some way to a personal scorn for the religious system at play in the time period. The tale of the Pardoner himself is so carefully constructed so that the listener can easily see the resolution just before it is delivered. This quality of the storytelling mimics the way that the Pardoner advocates for himself, in a way that makes the resolution, coming to him for a pardon, the only solution to the problem caused by poor deeds. It is this particular arrangement of style that helps to emphasize Chaucer’s attitude toward a religious aspect such as this, which is one of perceived immorality and even comic nature. Infusing his opinions of the practices which were so common at the time and layering over them a thought provoking and question stimulating story is the method Chaucer explores to create one of the most unique and fascinating stories of his work.

B. Dague

Anonymous said...

C5- 1. The triptych depicts a triad of scenes, the left most of the three being that of heaven. It is apparent that this is a divine and peaceful place because of the gentle and pleasant images shown in the background here. It is also clear due to the characteristic scene of Eve’s fall from grace as she looks cautiously toward the pit where small monsters seem to be coming from. The middle panel is that of Earth. This image is by far the most populated; acting as a representation of the amount of conscious time we spend here. In this image there are pleasures as well as pains. While many figures seem to be enjoying themselves, the image is not without pranks and clear discomfort in some accounts. Notably, there are many shadows scattered throughout, indicating the hidden yet active dark areas, possibly sins, that exist on Earth. The final and right most panel is a depiction of Hell. This image is full of monsters and various methods of pain and torture. In this piece of the whole suffering and anxiety is abundant. Upon close inspection of the painting it may be observed that horrible deeds and brutal treatment of the inhabitants of this realm dominate the action. Everything about this panel from the emotion, characters, and even the color scheme, stresses the feeling of pain and communicates Hell to the viewer.

B.Dague

Anonymous said...

C5- 2. Chaucer is standing in front of “The Garden of Earthly Delights”, contemplating the significance of each panel when from behind him quietly appears a strange figure, dressed in what he clearly finds to be fashionable attire, but which strikes Chaucer as an off color attempt to convey wealth and stature. Intrigued by the situation of his new comrade, he decides to strike a conversation about their mutual attraction to the wall.
Chaucer: “Compelling, is it not?”
Pardoner: agreeably, “Oh yes, yes, one might say so.”
Chaucer: “The scope of Bosch’s imagination is quite admirable.”
Pardoner: “Certainly.”
Chaucer: “Tell me, good man, does he not mean to make a farce of you and me, as well as all men, due to our dwelling within the middle panel?”
Pardoner: “I should say not. It is not he who makes the farce of us, but us who do, if anyone does.”
Chaucer: considering this comment in a most calculative fashion, “Do you say that his portrayal of us is one that you find to be accurate?”
Pardoner: realizing that this seemingly innocent conversation is moving beyond the paint in front of them, “I say that with men there are actions which occur that may not be in the best interest of the doer.”
Chaucer: with a sigh, “The result of which, of course, is the transportation to the right of this canvas.”
Pardoner: turning from the painting and raising his chin as he states in a sharper tone than expected by Chaucer, “Only for the foolish.”
Chaucer: detecting that he has found the nerve in his new friend, feigns ignorance of the tension and continues to stare intellectually at the painting, “Oh, I would not be so sure of it.”
Pardoner: “But for sure, my friend, the lair of the devil admits only those who refuse penance before closing the door on the center of this image.”
Chaucer: “Quite the opposite. The devil is a greedy villain. He steals from the heavenly skies all who need and have needed to apologize. He cares not if they have or have yet to when their time expires in this world.”
Pardoner: becoming heated “To be sure, the devil is a greedy villain, as you say. And cunning, too. Which is why the Lord needs to be even more so. Which he is!”
Chaucer: maintaining his calm demeanor still, “Whatever do you mean to say?”
Pardoner: “The fools in their given state here had once failed to see the wisdom of God and the path that He had provided them. If they had seeked out His forgiveness, the pain they could pray to avoid. For a small fee this pain they would have been spared. To be so blind is to land in such a Hell.”
Chaucer: “I say that no seeking is need to be done. The determination is to be made on Judgment Day alone. And the factors for the verdict lie only in the honor and behavior of those when on Earth.”
Pardoner: “No, sir!” raising his voice, “No! I fear that you may fall victim to the schemes of the devil too! Go! If you have sins to repent for go! Stop at your home and collect up your finest silver coin and then rush! Hurry yourself to find a Pardon! Have the sins of the Earth removed from your brow and a blessing restored to your name! Go now! Before your time comes and He finds you with the grime of life still on your hands!”
Chaucer: turning only now to face his flushed and adamant companion, “I think not. To fork away my hard earned wages to a man sitting only to impersonate the will of the Lord and to comfort me for a fee is preposterous. In God alone I do trust and He shall know all. He is wise and will devise for me the only proper ending. To place that role in a man would be a sin in itself. That is the action of your fool damned to Hell. Good day.”
With that, Chaucer turned, without a further glance toward the canvas, and strode easily down the corridor to the next tapestry, seemingly altogether undisturbed. The Pardoner, with fists clenched tightly around the silver in his pockets, quickly exited the facility, his string-like hair vanishing around the arched door way with an angry flourish.

B.Dague

Mike Witoski said...

Michael Witoski
AP Lit Period: B
9/17/2012
Beowulf and Chaucer Assignment

B1 A Caesura is a break in any form of poetry, usually placed in the middle of a verse as a sensual pause. Caesurae, visually, is often signaled by two vertical lines in poetry scansion, or by other grammatical signs that indicate a break -- such as comma usage. This type of literary device was used often in old and middle English. The well-known epic, Beowulf, makes this statement evident:

“Then wound up to welkin the wildest of death-fires,
roared o'er the hillock: heads all were melted,
gashes burst, and blood gushed out
from bites of the body. Balefire devoured,
greediest spirit, those spared not by war
out of either folk: their flower was gone.” (p. 38)

In these two sentences, the typical reader would imagine several different events taking place: a fire, explicit details of the wounds it inflicted, characterization of the fire, and a summary of the events through the use of metaphor. With so much happening, it is necessary to place breaks at convenient places within the writing. Besides the period, breaks are found between each action. The most notable example of caesura in the excerpt -- in the opinion of one who sees an obvious cut in the syntactical progression -- is “those spared not by war…: their flower was gone.” Although the two phrases are directly related, the pause is clear and intentional.

B2 Kenning is a type of literary trope that involves a combination of figurative words to describe a concrete, single word noun. Kenning was popularly used in Old Norse, Icelandic, and Anglo-Saxon poetry, but it was especially commonly used by Old English writers. Three examples of this figurative language in Beowulf are: “whale-path,” “breaker-of-rings,” and “war-attire.” A whale-path is simply the sea. In the epic, people who live far, by the ocean, are said to live by the whale-path. This example of Kenning is rather obvious; whales live in the sea, and they have no other path to take but the sea. A breaker-of-rings is a king or chieftain of comitatus. These kings would wear spiral rings on their arms, and would break off gold from these rings to reward followers. War-attire is any form of armor or protection that one would wear on the battlefield. One’s attire is simply his or her clothing or apparel. This being true, one would want to wear something protective during warfare -- armor.

Mike Witoski said...

C1 Chaucer depicts the knight as an honorable warrior who fights for justice. The knight follows a life of chivalry because he admires the notion as if it were a person. The narrator rambles on about not only how worthy the knight is in battle, but also how he has never lost one; he has killed every enemy he has fought personally (one-on-one) in battle. The knight wears a simple tunic, and travels with his son, the squire. His character is established through the narrator’s praise.
The monk is a masculine, avid hunter. Rather than following the order of the ones who came before him, he establishes a line of new-world manners. He is not well-read because of this, and goes against much of what his intended teachings would say. Despite this, he does not care. Even if he is considered to be masculine, he does not care much for physical labor. Because he is a hunter, he wears the finest furs and travels by horse, accompanied by greyhounds. He has a bald head and a smoothly-shaven face.
Hubert, the friar, is rarely depressed or dark in spirits. One reason why this applies is because he has no reason to ever be down. He begs for money when giving confession. He is not in touch with his sensitive side; not even the saddest of stories affect him. He believes that instead of weeping and praying in solitude, people should come to him with their problems -- for a fee, of course. He spends most of his leisure time in taverns. Being a corrupt religious figure, he feels no sympathy for the sick or poor; to him, they cannot help him financially, and are only capable of spreading more diseases. Even with such an obvious character trait, common people still see Hubert as a pious man rather than a greedy businessman. Physically, he is slightly rounded. He speaks with a lisp, but is still considered to be rather articulate.

C2 All three of the rappers in the video “Canterbury Tales Rap” are wearing jeans. One of them has a red Dr. Pepper shirt and sunglasses on. Another is wearing a striped dress shirt and a tan cap. The third is wearing a black shirt with white text on it, and a (mostly) white hat.

C3 The narrator on the recording has the voice of a young (possibly late twenties, early thirties) English-speaker who is studying classical literature. His middle English seems to come quite naturally, but still has a modern edge to it -- for obvious reasons. His voice does not seem to be that of an American, but is more like that of a European. He does not sound as if he would be suitable for television or popular radio, but he does have the voice of one who may consider continuing to do audio recordings or HD radio as a “DJ” for a classical radio station.

Mike Witoski said...

The narrator’s voice, in the audio recording of the beginning of The Prologue, has a certain intonation and accentuation at specific times that introduce different lines. These slight changes in sound do not represent different meanings, -- as intonation would in other languages -- but it gives areas of The Prologue a distinct pattern. This pattern is much like a verbal rhythm that accompanies the rhythm created within the beginning lines of the epic. Poetry, in general, can have a similar effect if read aloud, but the middle English establishes a different sort of rhythm that is interesting in its own way. This is not to say that the modern English translation does not have a nice repeated feeling throughout, but the middle English edition gives off a specific feel that is almost romantic in its rough, vulgar sound. With this, -- and the occasional pronunciation that is evocative of modern English words or words with similar meanings -- one is able to decode parts of the prologue without having any prior knowledge of decoding middle English.

C4 The Pardoner is presented as a gentle, graceful, and joyous person; he was ready to pardon people for their sins while singing and preaching in a merry manner. He came into the story as this upbeat character -- he was singing, telling stories to pass the time, and making the rest of crowd into his personal followers, it seemed. With this introduction, one would think that his story would be positive; one would think that the story would reinforce some corrupt idea in the individuals’ minds, with a positive outlook on pardoners (people who take the money out of their purses for giving others a pardon for their sins). Instead, the Pardoner’s story reflects unjust morals, dirty trickery, and the like -- without any kind of figurative veil to hide such acts. This irony complements the irony within the story he tells; the character who wins over the treasure claims that he is a kind figure -- a man trying to help out his sibling by increasing their profit. Instead, the main character chooses to poison both his comrade and his own brother. The fact that he gets away with it is indicative of the lives of the Pardoner and his fellow pardoners: they attempt to play the protagonist, but are doing good deeds (as it would be considered by the general public) for the wrong reasons.
Chaucer’s tone changes throughout both the Pardoner’s introduction and the Pardoner’s Tale. In the introduction to the character, the author praises the Pardoner’s personality and traits, while alternately throwing in comments that are insulting to those who follow him. By doing this, he is actually pointing out flaws in religious practices rather than utilizing personalized assault tactics on any of his characters. Again, his tone is casual, so the insults are hardly noticeable in structure; when one uses an insult, it is usually clear that pain was intentional. In this case, it appears to be intentional, without actually looking or sounding intentional on the surface.

Mike Witoski said...

Through Chaucer’s juxtaposition of these two pieces of the story, one can assume that his outlook on religion and morality was not positive -- One might even claim that this arrangement is an indirect criticism of religious values and the concept of morality of the time. He took a religious figure (one whom is clearly not the most pious of men), and made him reiterate a tale of corruption and greed. Directly afterwards, the Pardoner began begging for the crowd of pilgrims to empty their purses, or else they would suffer a similar fate. This could mean one of two things: for one, the character in the story felt no remorse for what he did, and cared not for his inevitable afterlife in hell (as Catholics, Roman Catholics, and the like believe). He was either using scare tactics on the surrounding company to force the pious ones into paying for a pardon for this reason, or he was suggesting a second possibility -- the same tragic fate that the brother and comrade fell victim to. With the possibility of two different threats in one tale, it seems obvious that Chaucer’s tone reinforces a negative opinion of religious practices and the suggested morality behind following these people and their ideas.

C5 The first panel of Hieronymus Bosh’s painting “The Garden of Earthly Delights” shows the idea of Adam and Eve. The image has lots of empty space and is filled with mostly animals. The second panel displays a scene of overpopulation; there are more people, they are all performing strange acts, and most of the image is taken up by human skin. Some people are sinning, so it may be a sort of omen. I think this because the final panel depicts a scene of devastation and destruction. The previous panel may be strange and a little obscure in nature, but it is still peaceful. The third panel is much darker; the entire city in the background is in fire, corpses clutter the ground, people are imprisoned by various objects, and there is a man married to a pig. The picture, in its entirety, seems to suggest that religion is the cause for overpopulation, and that this product is the cause of strange, early desires which, in turn, will lead to the devastated state in the final panel.

Kara said...

B1: A caesura is a complete pause in a line of verse or meter. One can be found in the following line: “Famed was this Beowulf: far flew the boast of him,” The caesura occurs after “Beowulf,” and is indicated by a colon, which signifies a pause. In speaking this line aloud, one would pause at the colon for an audible effect. This would seem to be a natural pause in speech.

B2: Kenning is a compound that employs two or more other words to describe a different thing. One example of kenning in Beowulf is “mead-house”, used to mean a large hall, presumably where Beowulf’s men would drink mead. A second example is “wave-walker,” meaning a ship. Since a ship sails on waves, “wave-walker” is a valid description. A third example of kenning is “cheek-pillows,” used to mean a pillow, perhaps more descriptively. All three of these examples are obviously kenning, not only because of the signature hyphen, but because of their nature: a descriptor followed by a word being described.

Kara said...

B3: As the Anglo-Saxons were introduced to Christianity in 597, so it is not surprising that Beowulf incorporates the religion, as well as Anglo-Saxon tradition. One aspect of this is the Anglo-Saxons’ militarism, which is shown by Beowulf’s rise to power. One line showcasing this is
“Corselets glistened
hand-forged, hard; on their harness bright
the steel ring sang, as they strode along
in mail of battle, and marched to the hall.”
This shows that there was pride in battle to the Anglo-Saxons. Another important aspect in the Anglo-Saxons’ lives was the mead hall, where much action took place. This is evidenced by the word “hall” being used nearly 150 times in the entire epic. A third aspect to the Anglo-Saxon culture that is prevalent is gift-giving. This is used to indicate wealth. Today, Christians give gifts at holidays as well.

Kara said...

C1: One of Chaucer’s introduced pilgrims is the Prioress, who is a nun. He describes her as a proper and learned person, with excellent manners and fluent French. Not much is said to negatively characterize her, but she is described as having a broad forehead. She is almost comically prim and well-behaved, which probably illustrates her as a higher member of society, as church members often were. As such, she was probably trained in manners so she would be a good representation of her church.
A second pilgrim is the clerk. He had once studied philosophy and was from Oxford. He is well-educated, but poor and emaciated. His horse is very thin, and he himself wears worn clothing. He prefers books and knowledge to luxuries, and it shows in his appearance. He is, however, very virtuous and grateful, particularly towards those who support him. The clerk also is a man of few words, but when he does speak, it is to say the necessary.
A third pilgrim is a sailor from Dartmouth. Although he is rough, and drinks wine often, he is portrayed positively. He is apparently very good at his craft, and this makes him an important person despite his relatively low-class status. He wears shabby clothes and rides a cart-horse. Nothing is described of his behavior towards others, however, which leaves the description shorter.

Kara said...

C2: One man has a black shirt from his high school’s Japanese club, and a plaid hat. Another has a red shirt and sunglasses. The third man is wearing a baseball hat and a tan striped shirt.

C3: The man’s voice is pleasant, and almost sounds Irish in accent. It does not sound like English, though. Perhaps a cousin of it. Following along with the written passage, both the passage and the recording become clearer, and the discrepancy in them is interesting. It begins to sound like a Lewis Carroll poem, and vowels are much different.

Kara said...

C4: The Pardoner’s Tale is a very ironic story, given the persona of the Pardoner. He tells a story of three men, who are rude, sinful, and arrogant. These three men set out to kill death, showing their ignorance and arrogance, as death is intangible and cannot be killed. They then disrespect and old man, showing rudeness and disrespect for their superiors. Once they pass the man, they come across a large amount of gold, and vow to split it. They decide that the gold is theirs because they have found it, and this shows yet more arrogance. When one man leaves to buy food, the other two conspire to kill him. Meanwhile, the first man buys poison to kill his two fellows. In the end, the three men are killed by their own greediness, and are shown to be very invirtuous people.
Ironically, the Pardoner is an invirtuous man as well. He tries to sell pardons to people to save them from hell, when, in reality, he is lying to them and cheating them of their money. He shows greed here, and arrogance, thinking that the other pilgrims will believe his power, and boasting that he was given this authority by Jesus. This irony, the Pardoner actually being just as invirtuous as the men in his tale, complements his story’s irony. The two are very similar characterizations, and in real life as in the tale, someone sees through the Pardoner’s lies, as the old man disregards the men in the tale.
Chaucer’s tone, through his juxtaposition of the story and the narrator, is not quite serious. He obviously intends for there to be irony and sarcasm in the Pardoner and his tale. He recognizes that people are hypocritical, and that morality is not necessarily dependent on religion. The two are separate, and in the case of the Pardoner, do not mix. The Pardoner may be a religious man, but he is immoral. Chaucer knows this, and intends this not as an insult to the clergy, but as a warning to people that they may be like this as well, without realizing it. Fortunately, Chaucer’s humor lightens this and overall, makes it a humorous piece.

Kara said...


C5: 1: A different scene is depicted in each panel. The leftmost panel depicts what looks to be Eden, with Adam and Eve in a paradise with God. The second panel, I am presuming, is after Adam and Eve took a bite from the forbidden fruit, when the world is being populated with more people. The third scene is nightmarish and looks almost surrealist. It is clearly intended to be a bad place because of the dark background.

Jennifer Golden said...

Jennifer Golden

Beowulf
B1. A caesura is a complete, natural pause that is often greater than a normal pause. It is represented best by the symbol of two vertical lines, but can really be any punctuation. In poetry, caesura is considered masculine if it follows a stressed syllable and feminine if it follows an unstressed syllable. Caesuras can be at any location in a line. A caesura at the beginning is referred to as an initial caesura, in the middle is medial and the end is a terminal caesura. In Old English, medial caesuras are most commonly seen. A single line of poetry may contain more than one caesura. The word “Caesura” itself is Latin to mean “cutting” like a break, a cut in the line to pause. Caesura is also a music term much like that in poetry as it is a pause in the music where no time is counted, represented by two lines slanted slightly off vertical, and commonly is a clean cut off and pause for breath following a fermata. An example of a caesura in Beowulf is the line, “come warriors willing, should war draw nigh”. The caesura in this line is simply a comma but when one reads this line it is natural to pause at the comma between ‘willing’ and ‘should’. This caesura is in the middle of the line thus it is a medial caesura.
B2. Kenning is useful when there is not yet a word appropriate to describe something. Instead it must be described by two pieces of existing imagery together to create a description of it. An example of this is the phrase, “sea-wood” on page eleven. They are trying to find a “sea-wood” to take on the water. Clearly this phrase is meant to indicate a wooden ship or boat. Perhaps it was meant to mean a good-sized warship, as they are warriors off to sea. A second example of kenning is, from page eleven also, is “swan-road”. They are crossing the water, or the “swan-road” to seek a monarch. Swans swim in the water, and a road is a path down which one travels, so a swan road is most likely a river, which is much like a road, only on the water. Thus, it is a road for swans. A third example of kenning in Beowulf is the term “war-weeds” on page eighteen. A “war-weed” could possibly mean to represent someone who has died in war. This is because as these bodies who were victims of war will be buried underground and them weeds will grow atop them.

Jennifer Golden said...

Jennifer Golden
B3. Beowulf originates from the time of the rise of the Anglo-Saxon culture and Christianity in England. There are several examples of this embedded into the poem. The above passages illustrate just a few. In the year AD 410 the Anglo- Saxon culture came to England. The term “Anglo-Saxon” refers to those inhabitants of the German lands, Angelin and Saxony. They were the pillar of British life following the fall of the Roman Empire.
The Anglo-Saxons originally were Pagans, until a mission trip led by Pope Gregory the Great and Saint Augustine convinced them in large numbers to follow the religion of Christianity. It is clear in Beowulf that Christianity was the dominant religion on several accounts. They would teach the children of life in terms of religion. One example of this being the story of the creation. Children were taught “how the Almighty made the earth, fairest fields enfolded by water” (Beowulf 8). Christianity was the basis of their entire outlook on life. Another example of Christianity is the story of Able and Cain. Biblical stories were used to teach morals, right from wrong, and the consequences of proceeding with wrong actions. The lesson of the story went as so, “On kin of Cain was the killing avenged by sovran God for slaughtered Abel. Ill fared his feud,6 and far was he driven, for the slaughter's sake, from sight of men. Of Cain awoke all that woful breed, Etins7 and elves and evil-spirits” (Beowulf 8). Cain had slaughtered his own brother and forever would all descendants of Cain be punished for doing so. This story teaches how murder is wrong, particularly murder and betrayal of one’s own family, and the punishment is inevitable. If something went well, or something went wrong, religion was always there to explain it. On their trip in the sea, “God they thanked for passing in peace o'er the paths of the sea” (Beowulf 11-12). And most things they did was in light of Christianity, and death would result in time with the Lord, as “But well for him that after death-day may draw to his Lord, and friendship find in the Father's arms!“ (Beowulf 10). Clearly the religion of Christianity was immensely influential in Beowulf due the Anglo-Saxon culture.
Other than religion, there are characteristics of Anglo-Saxon culture infused into Beowulf. When the Anglo-Saxons came to post-Roman Britain, they spoke their own language, which combined with the Latin, formed the English spoken today. The Anglo-Saxons separated into tribes which then grew into kingdoms and sub-kingdoms. This is very evident in Beowulf as they mention the clans, “by lauded deeds shall an earl have honor in every clan“(Beowulf 5). There were four main kingdoms which stood strong. Beowulf speaks greatly of kings and rulers, and of the importance of heirs to carry on reigning blood lines, as “Now Beowulf bode in the burg of the Scyldings, leader beloved, and long he ruled infame with all folk, since his father had gone away from the world, till awoke an heir, haughty Healfdene” (Beowulf 6.) According to the Regia Anglorum website, Viking raids were soon to come, “the year 793 marked a major change for England with the first major raid by Vikings on the Northumbrian monastery at Lindisfarne” (Levick 6). In Beowulf they must go out on ships to cross and to fight on the water. Perhaps some of these wars were against the Vikings. The Anglo-Saxon rule in England concluded in the year 1066 after the death of Edward the Confessor without an heir. Thus, Anglo-Saxon culture, particularly Christianity and loyalty to kingdoms is a large part of Beowulf.
Sources:
British Broadcasting Corporation. History: The Anglo-Saxons. BBC, n.d. Web. 16 Sept. 2012.
Levick, Ben, and Andrew Nicholson. “A Brief History of Anglo-Saxon England.” Regia Anglorum. 31 Mar. 2003. Web. 16 Sept. 2012.
Unknown. Beowulf. Virginia.edu. University of Virginia Library, 1998. Web. 16 Sept. 2012.

Jennifer Golden said...

Jennifer Golden
The Canterbury Tales
C1: One of Chaucer’s pilgrims is the physician, known as the “doctor of phisik”. The physician is a very good doctor, despite the fact that he had studied astronomy, “For he was grounded in astronomy”. He uses the astronomical signs and positions of the planets to enable him to cure all illnesses. The physician is well connected, especially with the apothecaries who provide him with the drugs necessary to cure patients. He knew many people and they all knew him. The physician was wealthy and Chaucer describes him so that he seems greedy, as “Therfore he lovede gold in special”, meaning that he loved gold most of all. He wore blue and gold clothing, of taffeta, but, mostly he chose not to spend all of his gold, but rather to keep it.
Another one of Chaucer’s pilgrims is the “persoun of a toun” which the country parson, or a simple parish priest. Chaucer describes this man as someone to be admired. He may be very poor, “povre”, but he still walks to the very far edges of his town in rain or snow and on foot, whenever anyone is sick or needs him. Chaucer gives him the image of being a shepherd carrying his staff and traveling on foot. Chaucer writes how is he a good, pure shepherd and how this makes him the best priest, much better than those who are dirty shepherds attempting to lead clean sheep. The persoun does not care for having much money, and does not hesitate to give out what little he has to the people of his parish, and states, “That if gold ruste, what shal iren do?”. What Chaucer seems to believe is the best trait of the persoun, by stating it last, is that he first followed the words which he preached.
The clerk is a pilgrim whom Chaucer depicts as also not living a life full of riches. He went to school at Oxford to study philosophy. He wears a tattered cloak and his horse is thin, “As leene was his hors as is a rake”. The clerk has very little gold in his bag, and he does a lot of borrowing. All he needs to have is his books even if he must borrow them from his friends. He cares more about having these precious books than rich clothing and musical instruments. The clerk is grateful towards those who helped him to acquire his education. He loves to learn and to teach others what he has learned.


C2: There are three MCs in this rap. One man is wearing a red Dr. Pepper, short-sleeved T-shirt with plain blue jeans. He has brown hair and wears sunglasses. The second man is wearing a black T-shirt which reads “Maryknoll High School Japanese Club 2005” although he does not appear to be of Japanese descent. He also wears blue jeans but his are much darker. Most noticeable is his hat, which is white with a blue and light brown striped pattern on it. The third man also wears dark jeans, but instead of a T-shirt he wears a collared shirt with vertical brown and white colored stripes. At times he also has a light brown baseball cap, but in some shots he has removed it.

Jennifer Golden said...

Jennifer Golden
C3: The narrator speaking in Middle English sounds very different from modern English. His voice sounds as if he is storytelling, which, he pretty much is. His accent sounds something similar to Europen, perhaps German or Dutch with a slight French twist, which would make sense since much of the English language was derived from German. The time of Middle English, French influence had begun. In many ways it helps to hear the words, but in other circumstances the word needs to be seen also. Mainly the vowels carry different sounds than someone today would give them. They utilize the letter “y” very often and seeing a word begin with the letter “y” followed by a consonant sounds near impossible to pronounce. Yet many of these “y”s sound like “I”s today. For many words ending in an “e” or a consonant followed by an “e” one would not normally pronounce that ending e in modern English but the narrator of this Middle English tale adds an “eh” sound to the end of many words. This adds the French twist to the narrator’s accent. The letter combinations that would be blended together in modern English such as the t-h and w-h combinations are less blended in the Middle English. They also pronounce e-s and e-d as they look where in modern English the “d” and “s” sounds overshadow that “e”. It is more phonetic than modern English. The stress placed on different parts of the words helps to decode it because it emphasizes the syllables and letter combinations of the words much like how we would say that word today with the same emphasis and spell the not emphasized part drastically different. Thus, just looking at the passage in Middle English is not as beneficial to understand it as hearing it pronounced also.
C4: Irony, in any work of literature, provides a useful tool in adding a whole deeper layer of meaning to one’s writing. To understand irony a reader must look beyond the words that are on the page, must absorb the work as a whole, must comprehend how the author planned and manipulated simple words into a complex work of art. Irony in The Canterbury Tales shines through very prominently in the Pardoner’s Tale. In the Pardoner’s Tale of The Canterbury Tales, Chaucer utilizes irony within the tale itself, and in his juxtaposition of the pardoner’s tale with the preachings of the pardoner and the revealing of his character traits, which all amount to give the conscientious reader a better understanding of Chaucer’s opinion towards the relationship of religion and morality.
The pardoner’s tale is fairly comedic as it truly reeks of hypocrisy and irony. These three drunken men are on a search for a killer names “Death”. Their search for death leads them directly to their own deaths. Along the way they encounter an old man. The three men are rude to the old man, yet he delivers nothing but politeness in return. The old man has been pretty much calling for death to take him next he informs the three younger men, yet he was still living. This is irony in the story because three men encounter a man looking for death while they look for Death. The three men find the wrong death. Their rudeness to this man was pretty much karma and also foreshadowed their own imminent deaths. Now, the pardoner is a man who preaches on forgiving sins, prior to telling his tale he must give sermons on the more frowned upon things in life. He warns the other pilgrims not to gamble, not to drink. He informs them of the horrors of greed and convinces them he knows best. Yet before the Pardoner can recite his moral tale, he must stop to rest and acquire a drink. Then in the tale he spins the three men are drunk and the lessons he teaches are of immoralities, of greed and of drinking, and how these are monumental sins.

Jennifer Golden said...

Jennifer Golden
C4 (continued) After concluding his tale the Pardoner does attempt to sell his indulgences to one and all. His tells them of how they can simply give just anything of worth for a life free of sin. The Pardoner explains his motto to them all. It is “Radix malorum est capiditas” which is Latin for “Greed is the root of all evil”. Preaching this before, after and throughout his tale the Pardoner has made it clear to the reader how he is quite a hypocrite. He says riches do not matter, so why then does he need them all? Why not just forgive sins for free? Simply, because he enjoys his riches, he thrives off of them. In his tale, large amounts of gold caused all three men to become very greedy and caused the ultimate demise of each other. It is ironic that the Pardoner can preach such a tale while having such a love for riches of all sorts. He must drink before speaking of the horrors drinking, and he must ask for other’s valuables after reciting a story in which he explains the immoral natures of greed.
In his juxtaposition of the irony in the tale with the Pardoner himself, Chaucer’s thoughts on religion and morality become quite visible. His tone seems to be somewhat critical of the Pardoner and his lifestyle. He is the one to preach of morals, yet he does not follow a single one of these morals in his own lifestyle. Chaucer does not seem critical of religion, but rather of the hypocrisy of those given power. Earlier in the prologue, Chaucer seemed to glorify the humble small parish priest, but the Pardoner who is given more power, is not a moral figure at all. It would be logical that the higher religious figures would follow their own rules of morality most strictly, but clearly this is not the case. Through his use of irony, in the Pardoner’s tale and in his depiction of the Pardoner, Chaucer illustrates his own opinion on religion and morality and the hypocrisy that is spewing out of it in this time period.

Jennifer Golden said...

Jennifer Golden

C5: 1) There are three scenes in the triptych which appear to go in chronological order from left to right. The one all the way to the left depicts Adam meeting Eve in a brilliant garden. In the garden it is sunny, the grass is green, the sky is blue. There are animals, both real and mythological, frolicking about peacefully. A man who appears to be God is blessing Eve as she meets Adam. The garden appears to be a safe and happy place. In the larger, middle panel, things seem to have taken a shift. The weather is still beautiful, but now there are multitudes of people. It appears to be after Eve has eaten the apple from the tree and has opened a world of desires and greed. Everywhere, then people are giving into temptations of all sorts. They also seem to have taken control over the animals and plants that had previously resided there peacefully. It seems as if they have begun to make some semblance of technological advances as they have all sorts of structures built. The third panel is frightening. It is dark and cold. It seems as if they are now being punished for giving into temptations, yet they cannot quite shake the need for those desires. The tree- man in the middle houses people and devils engaging in various activities viewed as sins. In the bottom left these people appear to be in pain and dying. The animals running around are mutated and feeding off of the people. There are giant instruments and weapons scattered everywhere. In the bottom right corner is the only clothed man (besides the God figure from the first panel on the left) who also has a facial appearance slightly different from that of the other men. Perhaps he is meant to be a saint relevant at the time the painting was completed.

Jennifer Golden said...

Jennifer Golden
C5 (continued)
2) Today I encountered an interesting character. I had stopped in at an art museum where a painting by Hieronymous Bosch was on exhibit. I stopped to take it in, and planned to stay for only a moment. The painting was called “The Garden of Earthly Delights” and it was a triptych, with each panel depicting a different but related scene. As I was studying it and formulating a scholarly opinion on the painting a man appeared at my side. The first thing I noticed about him was his hair, for it was so very long and so very blonde, and I could not help but to think to myself of how badly he needed a haircut. He wore no cloak to cover those gold locks, and his face was smooth with no traces of a beard. As he viewed the painting a smile crept onto his face. He scanned each panel, his eyes lingering on the third before stepping back to take in the whole painting at once. “It’s right” he said, “so very right, finally an artist who understands what I have preached for years”. “Excuse me sir, but are you speaking to me?” I inquired. “What do you think of this masterpiece?” he said to me, “Do you see how the third panel depicts all the Earthly temptations we try so hard to avoid, yet we all sin anyway. Greed, gambling, drinking, it is all there. And look at the outcome; look at that dark world overflowing with sin.” “You are right sir” I responded slowly, not quite sure yet what to make of this strange man, “Those Earthly desires are what the Bible wishes us to avoid. Humility is an honorable trait we should replace them with.” In a calm voice he said to me, “I am the Pardoner, sir, what is your name? In my bags here with me I have the necessary relics to forgive your sins. Just pay a small price of some gold or some silver. I am not picky, anything of worth will do, and then etch your name onto my list I will, for you could fall down on your way out of here and hit your end. Will it not be nice to be guaranteed that the gates of heaven open upon your arrival?” And with that statement I realized what was wrong. I saw the luxuries of his life evident upon him. I realized that he was a Pardoner. He went around preaching to other what was wrong then he took from them, nearly stealing, in his greedy ways. This man was a horror, a disgrace to religion’s name. “Sorry, but no. My name is Chaucer and I am afraid I must go.” That man made me sick, as he bathed in his wealth then turned right around and preached to me, a humble man, of the horrors of greed. Why could life not have been kept as pure the first panel of the painting I thought to myself as I left that hypocrite behind.

Colby Sears said...

B1: The epic Beowulf consists of a number of definitive caesuras, or strong pauses within a line. Caesuras keep the narrative poem moving at a fresh, musical pace that would be noticeably absent if pauses in the poem were to only occur at line breaks. Beowulf establishes a sort of rhythm that varies the meter of the lines and keeps the interest of the audience intact. There are typically an equal or similar number of syllables on either side of the pause, as seen in the following line: “jewel and gem casket. -- Jealousy fled he”. In the excerpt, “jewel and gem casket” and “jealousy fled he” each consist of five syllables and are distinctly divided by a significant pause between one another.

B2: A kenning is a compressed form of metaphor in which an object is depicted in a descriptive two-word phrase using imagery, in place of a simple name or title for the person or thing concerned. Throughout the narrative, the author utilizes multiple kennings to substitute for a variety of words involving the story of Beowulf. One particular line of the poem reads “in wealth he throve, till before him the folk, both far and near, who house by the whale-path…” The phrase “whale-path” is most certainly indicative of the ocean, for example, a location the author clearly asserts to be characterized and distinguished by the whales that inhabit it. Another example of a kenning can be found in the line “its hard edge failed the noble at need, yet had known of old strife hand to hand, and had helmets cloven, doomed men’s fighting-gear.” In this example, “fighting-gear” can readily replace the word “armor” as the author writes of an intense battle scene. In the line “when Hun with ‘Lafing,’ the light-of-battle, best of blades, his bosom pierced: its edge was famed with the Frisian earls.” the author omits the curt word of “sword” and instead inserts “the light-of-battle” in its place, an imposing phrase that captures the essence of the power and pain a sharp-edged sword can inflict.

B3: The religious beliefs and cultural aspects of the Anglo-Saxons had a substantial influence on the development and storytelling of Beowulf. As reported by BBC, Anglo-Saxon literature began as an oral tradition, and most of the tales they told involved stories of brave warriors and the perilous adventures they embarked upon. These stories and poems, often accompanied by song, were told aloud and passed from generation to generation by means of the absolute power of the human tongue. According to Patrick Wormald, the Anglo-Saxons spoke Old English, the language that Beowulf was written in, and were devotees to Christianity who also valued traditional heroes and heroic ideals. Wealth, power, and valiant actions where what they desired and family, virtue, and human contact what they honored.
The attributes of the Anglo-Saxons emerge within the text of Beowulf and often relate to their Christian beliefs and heroic values. God is mentioned several times throughout the poem by both Beowulf and Hrothgar, including once instance of Beowulf in which “God he thanked, mighty Lord, for the man’s brave words.” Throughout the poem, Beowulf relies heavily on the power and mercy of God to keep him alive over the course of his journey to defeat the monster of Grendel. Grendel, in fact, also plays off of the Anglo-Saxon’s Christianity by being portrayed as the evil Lucifer who “from the moorland, by misty crags, with God’s wrath, Grendel came.” Both Grendel and the biblical character of Lucifer are outcasts of society recognized for their evildoings against God. Christopher Garcia writes that Beowulf’s tale is also representative of Anglo-Saxon literature due to the characteristics he possesses as a quintessential hero: honor, intelligence, tactfulness, courage, and a will to sacrifice, all important concepts that not only represent the culture of the Anglo-Saxons but also embody it.

Colby Sears said...

C1: The prologue of Geoffrey Chaucer’s The Canterbury Tales introduces the conditions and characteristics of a diverse mix of English pilgrims embarking on a trip to Canterbury, as seen in the exceptionally observant eyes of the narrator. The Squire, one of the many characters Chaucer relays in the introduction, is a lover, one of high class, a bouncy bachelor estimated to be about twenty years of age. His locks are well curled and he is agile and brawny, and is compared to the brilliance of a bright meadow and the undeniable bloom of the sprightly month of May. He relishes in singing and whistling and jousting and dancing, and is a talented sketch artist and writer. This sensual Squire hardly sleeps, and is particularly modest and able with his work.
Chaucer also introduces the Monk, a manly man, who cherishes hunting and maintaining the well-kept horses he takes most of his pride in. The luxurious sleeves he wears are made with fine grey fur at the hand, the finest around, and he fashions his usual garb with a wrought-gold pin in the shape of a love-knot. His bald head bears the shine of the shiniest glass and due to his portly figure he stands both erect and absolute. Chaucer compares the hunting enthusiast’s eyes to fire beneath a pot; a gleaming, glowing, burning red. He is recognized for his constant rolling of the eyes, a trait Chaucer finds plainly repugnant.
The author also describes the Physician, a skilled doctor of medicine. He has cared for and saved the lives of countless patients with his knowledge of the natural sciences and his study of the astrological signs. The Physician is able to recognize the cause of nearly all types of imaginable sickness and whether they bring heat or cold or moisture or dryness to those afflicted. His apothecaries and drugs are always at hand and he is at all times prepared to aid those in sickness nearby. He dresses in blue and scarlet clothing, lined with sendal and taffeta, and cherishes the gold he owns above all.

C2: “Canterbury Tales Rap”, a homemade rap music video set to the lines of The Prologue of The Canterbury Tales, is certainly a unique take on Chaucer’s classic tale. The attire of the video’s mediocre MC’s is hardly impressive, each of them wearing a simple shirt and a pair of paints. One of the men is wearing a faded red t-shirt with the Dr. Pepper logo plastered over the front and a pair of dark oversized sunglasses while another, most likely reliving his teenage days as a bilingual verse-slinging bad boy wears a black t-shirt reading Maryknoll High School Japanese Club 2005, accompanied by an ill-fitting blue and brown striped hat. The third rapper wears an oversized brown and tan button-down shirt paired with dark jeans.

C3: The audio recording of The Prologue of The Canterbury Tales in Middle English is fairly decipherable yet rather inexplicable. The pronunciation of the speaker aids the listener in comprehending Middle English language styles with the stress he puts on certain consonants; the resonance and dominance the consonants have in a sentence or phrase prove vaguely comparable with the modern English language. The enunciation of the orator gives the impression of a foreign accent to some extent, but the occasional modern English roots and syllables provided remind the audience of the native language being spoken. Although the pronunciation of the text as a whole is undoubtedly different from the pronunciation of the English language today, it is plainly evident that the articulation of Middle English is not entirely far off from that of the modern day.

Colby Sears said...

C4: The Pardoner, one of the most significant pilgrims of Chaucer’s The Canterbury Tales, represents an entirely different dynamic than that of the tale he shares. This complicated character utters words and phrases and stories that have little to no correlation with his personal actions. He is a brilliant preacher renowned for his absolute ability to convince his audience and make their own sins apparent. Although the Pardoner appears as a guiltless gentleman who services strangers by pardoning and repenting their sins, the Pardoner, in fact, thrives off of the one quality he claims he does not possess: greed. Chaucer’s The Pardoner in The Canterbury Tales proves to be an untrustworthy individual who defies his own religious expectations and moral values in the tainted tale he shares with the Canterbury pilgrimage.
As aforementioned, the supposed persona of the Pardoner is that of extreme sincerity and absolute authenticity. The Pardoner seems to thrive off of a life without greed, without selfishness, without insatiability. However through telling The Pardoner’s Tale, a tale of three self-obsessed men who thrive off of quite the opposite, the Pardoner proves every seemingly valid claim towards himself to be entirely insubordinate. Within the story, three sinners on a trek to murder Death come across a fairly substantial amount of gold; one of the men must return to town while the other two keep watch over their newly-discovered riches. The pair of guards devises a plan to kill the third man when he returns to them from town while the third man intends to kill the pair via two glasses of poisoned wine upon his return. The third man, according to plan, is killed on his arrival and the greedy pair sip the wine he was carrying to celebrate. The two perish almost instantly from the man’s poison, not one man is able to claim the gold, and all three men die due to their own self-indulgence.
Irony ultimately compliments the story itself because it is the central device used to portray the story. The irony lies in the fact that because these men prosper off of a greedy lifestyle, not one of them is able to earn the right to claim the riches they have found. Rather than have become wealthy and successful and greedier than their previous selves, the Pardoner’s Tale tells the story of three selfish men who ironically pass away of their own accord. Chaucer’s tone throughout the story is one of disdain towards the tale and certain hollowness towards the Pardoner himself. He also does not think very highly of religion and morality due to the fact that the characters of his story entirely disregard both of these concepts.

Colby Sears said...

C5: “The Garden of Earthly Delights” is a comprehensive painting by Hieronymus Bosch depicting three distinct individual scenes. The far left panel illustrates a scene of peace, a landscape in which an array of animals is able to coexist and thrive peacefully. A glowing pink water fountain spews from the center of the panel, almost as a center point of the world the painting depicts. Towards the bottom of the painted scene are a naked man and women, perhaps Adam and Eve, aiding the human race for the first time in this new world created before them. The second panel of the triptych is immediately more chaotic and overwhelming to the eye; undressed men and women envelop nearly every section of the three-way painting, and it appears as if the human race is beginning to grow and evolve as one. The animals within the landscape are being ridden on, captured, and used by the superior race, and it seems as if their importance and role in society has been severely diminished. Lastly is the third panel of the triptych, which focuses on a vast, rolling landscape of ashy buildings and fiery remains. Manmade instruments and machinery encompass the space as humans use and abuse them for their every want and need.
If Geoffrey Chaucer and his own character of the Pardoner were to analyze and observe Bosch’s painting together, the conversation between them would most certainly be one of both matchless and overwhelming quality.
“The greed, the selfishness, the animosity. What has happened to this world, Pardoner? What is this sudden influx of violence and bad spirits?” says Chaucer.
“Geoffrey, I believe we both know for certain that this greed, this hostility, is something that is purely uncontrollable. You and I both have it within us and no matter how much we try to suppress it, it will always be there. Always,” replies the Pardoner.
Chaucer, incredulous, says “But Pardoner, just take a look at the vivacity of the leftmost paintings. Is this world really encompassed by the endless hate and hostility we have all come to know?”
“These people no longer need their sins pardoned, Geoff. Their narcissistic goals and self-obsessed values are what their world is really all about. I would try to come to terms with it right about now,” responds the Pardoner, “Look around you. This world is clearly not what it used to be.”

Seth Killingbeck said...

B1: A caesura is a usually rhetorical break in the flow of sound in the middle of a line or verse. An example of a caesura in Beowulf is “No hero ‘neath Heaven, --who harbored that freight” (6). This is a caesura because of how it makes a sudden jump to what feels like a different line entirely. The gap between “Heaven” and “who” is very sudden and creates a gap in the flow of the verse. It makes the last part of the verse feel detached from the rest in an almost awkward sort of way. It feels like there should be more lines between the two, which probably at one time existed and were lost through the great contortions of time.
B2: The definition of a kenning is a metaphorical compound word or phrase. Whale path, for example is a kenning for the term sea. Whales tend to migrate and move inland via the sea, hence why a whale-path is a replacement for the term sea. Breaker-of-rings is a kenning for the position of king. Kings of ancient times would break off gold or silver from a ring worn around their arms to reward others for their deeds hence the name. Lastly is the term mid-earth. Earth in Christian society was believed to be between Heaven and Hades, which mid-earth referring to the world humanity lives in.
B3: Beowulf takes the pagan Anglo Saxon culture and fuses it with Christian cultural views due to its being passed down orally which caused the change in the story’s telling from person to person. The Anglo Saxons consisted of the war-like tribes north of Rome such as the Gaul, Britanian, and Germanic tribes. To begin, “forth he fared to that fated moment, sturdy Scyld to the shelter of God” (Anon 6) presents this dynamic of blending the two cultures. Anglo-Saxon naming is present here as Scyld is certainly not a name that would have appeared in the biblical texts or would many who lived in the time of Christianity’s uprising be names such. Secondly, this quote directly references God, not just a god or the gods, which the native tribes to the Anglo Saxon lands worshipped a vast pantheon of gods, but the lord of all Christendom. Upon Beowulf’s birth there has been “no man able to sooth, no son of the halls, no hero ‘neath Heaven, who harbored that freight.” (6). The birth of the newborn king is presented in a dramatic statement containing these two cultures. There is mention of soothsayers, a type of oracle or psychic, which is a characteristic of the pagan society and was deemed a sinful practice by Christians of the time. However Heaven is also mentioned in the very same verse thus clashing with the pagan aspects of the work. As Beowulf brings out upon victory is believed “The lord of Heaven” (49) allowed for his triumph. This tale is from long before Christian myth arose as previously mentioned the Anglo Saxon tribes worshipped many Gods before the Lord and that the people of the time of Beowulf would praise the gods, not God. Beowulf demonstrates how Christian myth has impacted even old societies upon its spreading throughout the West.
C1: The first of the pilgrims mentioned The Canterbury Tales is The Knight. The knight is given an entire backstory of honorable service in the name of Christendom, which are the catholic nations of the West. He is described as a very polite and calm mannered man, but he fights valiantly. He has never lost a duel in his time and even clashed swords with the Islamic factions of the East. He is the very pinnacle of chivalry, but yet he rides on a horse covered with simple cloth, as opposed to the ornate cloths normally strewn over a horseman’s mount.
Another of the pilgrims is the Clerk. The clerk, as opposed to the Knight, is but a simple student of classical philosophy. He rides an emaciated horse and wears battered clothes over his also slim body.

Seth Killingbeck said...

He lives a simple life, studying and teaching philosophy from his many books in his simple home, though he is not recognized as a pious or humanistic individual. He preaches of morals and is an amiable young man who wants to do only good for others.
Third is the Miller. The Miller is described a very large, ugly man. He wears a simple hood and cloak. He likes to fool around because he is described as a jester. It is said that he does know poetry, but only poetry that is about obscenity and sin. He himself is accused of stealing from others and selling out the product for three times its price. He is described as often playing the bagpipe, and based on his red hair one could assume the man was Scottish.
C2: The MCs in the rap version of the prologue wore the following attire
One man wore a red Dr. Pepper shirt and jeans, as well as a pair of sunglasses to top it all off. There was an African American rapper who wore a brown collared shirt with vertical stripes as well as a tan baseball cap. The third rapper wore a black T-shirt and a white floppy hat with a mixture of light blue and gray rectangles covering the upper half.
C3: The narrator who reads the prologue speaks a solemn tone, with a thick, British sounding accent. It felt strange listening to how the words are really supposed to be pronounced because it almost sounded like an entirely different language save for a few bits and pieces here and there. When I read the text version personally, it felt easier to understand what was going on because some of the words were spelt similar to their modern counterparts. In my head they were pronounced a little less literally and more like their modern counterparts. The various silent letters, such as ending vowels, being pronounced makes the words feel entirely different.
C4: The Medieval era was a time of great controversy and hypocrisy. This was a time ruled by iron fisted tyrants guised as popes, and false promises of salvation. Many who opposed these tyrannies were met with censorship or death in the name of the savior, but some few did make it through. Writers such as Chaucer created tales depicting the evils behind the governing bodies of the era through his work. In a tale depicting the greed of men in medieval Europe Chaucer uses painful irony, a bitter tone, as well as his own negative views of religion at the time within the pardoner’s tale of The Canterbury tales to depict the falsity of human morals in medieval Europe.
The astounding irony of the pardoner’s tale is one of its most prevalent features. The tale is all about how human greed, in its own special way, is death. The three men end up killing each other over a simple sack of florins, even after they swore each other’s loyalty as brothers. Yet the pardoner telling this tale is only using this story to mislead the local peasantry into giving him material wealth for forgiveness for their sins. This was typical of church officials of the time and it is being depicted through the pardoner’s tale in a way that makes him seem like a crook. The irony further enforces the purpose of the story of the three men because it shows how greed even afflicts the supposedly holy and pure clergymen.
As ironic as the tale is, it would be nothing without its tone. The bitterness of the exchanges between characters can almost be tasted while reading it as each character executes their dark plot. The

Seth Killingbeck said...

pairing of the tale and the pardoner’s exchange with host is a very good example of the bitter hatred the host shares for the pardoner. The host picks up on the hypocritical nature of the pardoner’s ploy and exclaims that he’d rather “have Christ’s curse” than to fall for the pardoner’s scheme. In other words the man would rather take his chances with God himself than to be so easily fooled by the sly clergyman. The strength of this phrase is enhanced by how the man continues to rattle on about how unholy the pardoner is and how that he should follow his own warning. This scam was typically successful to the uneducated masses of the time and proves how evil the church could be.
Observing the uses of irony and tone in the story, one can conclude that Chaucer’s views on human morality and religion were not exactly positive. After all, the entire piece is merely depicting the scandals of clergymen at the time, as repeatedly stated previously. Chaucer believes that humanity was being misled by the ruling Papal body of the time. He wondered why the Roman Catholic Church had the right to wealth, but if it fell in the hands of the common it was considered sinful. He believed that humanity lived in an ignorant state due to the lack of education of the time. The church, in his eyes, was taking advantage of a simple populace who only wanted to do good, but were instead used to fuel the sins of their governors.
The irony, tone, and falsity of the work are a clear depiction of church corruption in the medieval era. Clergymen lied to their masses in order to gain a profit. Few saw through this ruse and tried to end it. Humanity was being misled by a corrupt holy body. As the years would go on there would be hope for the commoners as new thoughts and ideas would arise from the ashes of the old classical civilizations.
C5: “The Garden of earthly delights” features three drastically different panels. Starting on the left is a grassland, with dense trees and single pond with very few buildings and inhabited by very few people, one of which being clothed and closely resembling Jesus. The skies are blue and the land is mostly inhabited by animals of varying specials from simple birds to large elephants. There is a deep pit at the foot of the image where animals seem to be spawning out of. A couple of oddly structured pastel colored buildings in dot the landscape.
The middle frame appears to be much more lively than the left most frame as it depicts a crowded field, also under blue skies, of nude people who are all prancing about in merriment and love. There are more odd buildings which resemble castles in this panel and there are far fewer animals in this picture. There are giant birds in a group on the left of the panel and horses being rode about the center around a tiny pond. The people appear cheerful and relaxed as they lay side by side with a contented look on their faces. People appear to be crawling in and out of large berry-like pods both in and out of the water. There’s a small orchard on the right where people are contentedly eating the fruit of the trees.
The panel on the right is a dramatic shift from the other two previously depicted. The previously depicted blue skies are now replaced by a pure black, smoke filled sky. The people are neither merry nor content, but seem to instead be suffering. There are giant instruments and other gargantuan objects that seem to be crushing the people in the panel. Some are trying to lift the objects off their bodies to

Seth Killingbeck said...

no avail, while others just lay in suffering. There appear to be ships sinking in a black river, as their sailors desperately try to stay afloat. Any buildings in this painting appear to be either black or made of bone as opposed to the bright pastel colors of the previous two panels.

C: An odd work is it not? I mean those buildings are very curiously designed, don’t you think?
P: Seems like a waste of time and space to me.
C: but I must say, its message is very clear.
P: I think it’s full of goat excrement.
C: Okay well, look at this panel, that one on the right.
P: hmmm, seems like a bunch of fools didn’t pay their pardoners.
C: Ever stop to think maybe THEY were the pardoners?
P: Ha! Please, they’re just a bunch of common sinners; they never earned those stupid instruments of theirs.
C: Why do you deserve them?
P: Because I’m a man of God!
C: So? Am I any less than a man of God? Why are you any different, I mean look at those people suffering under their wealth. I’ve never seen a mere peasant with so much as a florin in their pocket let alone such well-crafted goods.
P: Like I fare much better.
C: that’s a mighty fine looking outfit you’ve got, how many women did you threaten with the devil to get them huh?
P: I earned these clothes! I am a man of GOD!
C: A man of God is humble, you seem to be nothing more than a thief, much like what the people in this painting are, thieves!
P: They just refused to give their goods to the worthy.
C: No, they ARE the worthy, worthy of eternal suffering!
P: You’re trying my patience.
C: Try and disprove me.
P: Fine.
C: Go Ahead
P: …because God said so.
C: Really when? Can you prove this to me?
P:…
C: exactly, you are no holier than me, you just use that as an excuse to fool our people into giving you wealth, by the way that’s a sin.
P: I think I should make my leave.
C: why don’t you just rethink your life Mr. Pardoner.
P: I don’t need your advice, I’ll show you who the pious one is.
C: I’ll enjoy looking down on you from my throne in Heaven you hypocrite!
P: I’m done with you common scum…

Ashleigh Korona said...

Ashleigh Korona

B1. A caesura is a break or pause shown as a gap on the page. Caesuras keep up a melodic sound and rhythm within the poetry. In Beowulf the caesuras are placed in appropriate places, for example, “...chieftain of clansmen, children four:” caesura, “Heorgar, then Hrothgor, then Halga the brave.” That blank space of page before he names the children keeps a rhythm that, if while reading the entire passage, one feels how appropriate it is, taking that time to move one's eyes across the space. That short relief of text almost tricks one's mind with the sight of it, but at the same time one enjoys the caesura after realizing what just happened.

B2. A kenning is when an author uses two or more pieces of existing imagery to name something that does not yet have a name. One example of a kenning from Beowulf is whale-road, referring to the sea. Because they do not have a word for the sea they describe it in a shortened phrase that is functional and fancy sounding. Other examples of a kenning from Beowulf are wielder-of-wonder, referring to God, and sea-wood, meaning ship.

Ashleigh Korona said...

Ashleigh Korona
B3. Beowulf represents a culture very unlike today's, it was a time of religion and rural cultures. The Anglo-Saxon culture was dominated by religion, war, and pagan beliefs that had not yet been extinguished by Christianity. The demon spirit Grendel represents the old beliefs of these people. The great hall that is described is actually called a hearth in the Anglo-Saxon culture, the hearth is where the warriors of the lord are housed, which the story stays true to. Their values also come through very strongly in Beowulf, for example, “Blessed God out of his mercy this man hath sent to Danes of the west, as I ween indeed, against horror of Grendel.” By coming to aid the king out of his own goodness shows how much good deeds and respect meant to Beowulf and of the people in general. Because he honors his father, another traditional value, Beowulf comes to lay down his life for this king and his people in return for nothing but having done a good deed out of generosity. Anglo-Saxons held moral and traditional values very highly, striving to up hold them by fighting for their people or their king. Their beliefs in Christianity also shine through, by example, “But God is able this deathly for from his deeds to turn!” By referencing to God so often they show how they are devoted to the religion, and also by putting their faith into Christianity by saying that God will save them from Grendel.
"Anglo-Saxons." BBC News. BBC, n.d. Web. 12 Sept. 2012. .


Ashleigh Korona said...

C1. One of Chaucer's pilgrims, the squire, strikes one to her of him. He is the son of the knight, a young man of twenty, characterized as extremely youthful. He is above all characterized as a lover, a lusty bachelor. He was known for his skills in horseback riding, writing, singing, dancing, and his chivalry. The month of May is used by Chaucer to illustrate his character, comparing his freshness of his youth to the fresh weather of the month. The squire's personal appearance was of a shorter man of great strength, the fashion of his dress was of the times with lots of embroidery. There are also several comments on his sexual life, saying how hotly he loves that he sleeps well at night. Over all the squire is an ideal lady's man, seemingly sensitive with his abilities in the liberal arts and attractive with his strength.
The shipman is another one of Chaucer's characters, being a rough and tumble kind of guy, but also having a good nature. He tends to turn towards the criminal side of his nature, taking what does not belong to him when people have their backs turned. When in a fight with him one should be cautious for he tends to fight to the death, promising that one will be tossed to the sea. Although he is rough around the edges he is a wonderful seaman, he knows his charts and maps, the whole ship inside and out. He is a sketchy character with a round body and a scruffy beard, but laying underneath his sea salty exterior lays a good man.
An interesting character in The Canterbury Tales is the wife of bath. She is a woman of business, she thrives through a very successful cloth business. The wife is a well traveled woman that has been to Rome, Bologna, and Gaul. Her appearance is very rich, she dresses in fine clothes of scarlet red and wears brand new, soft leather shoes, her hair is very extravagant and her face is also red. She is well learned in “the old dance,” and “the remedy of love,” having many “partners” over the years. Her physical appearance is interesting, what with her wide hips and big feet she took up a lot of space. She is definitely a person of great distinction in the novel, being a strong female character with such traits that mot women of the times did not posses.
The Prioress is a funny character, she is a large woman who tries to be dainty. She wants to be feminine and dainty but it seems rather comical that she tries to be because of her appearance. Chaucer tells us she weeps when a mouse is caught in a trap, but she also feeds them to her dogs. The Prioress carries around like her beads that are not rosary beads, being a nun one would think she would carry something religious if she carried anything at all, but instead she has a necklace of beads that has something about love written on them. She tries to be someone she is not, letting her true nature slip out now and again, showing one how fake she really is.

Ashleigh Korona

Ashleigh Korona said...


C2. In the dope rap video of the prologue of the Canterbury tales there are three somewhat young males preforming in a delightful manner. One performer was wearing jeans, sunglasses, and a red shirt that had the coke logo on it in white. The second was wearing a pin striped shirts with beige shades on it and a tan baseball like cap. The last was wearing a blue green beige stripped hat in the hideous 90's skipper style, jeans, and a black shirt with writing on it that said something about a club at a high school, which is hard to read while he never stops moving.

C3. Listening to middle English is an interesting opportunity. To hear one's language spoken in such a way is so odd, to hear the familiar sounds with harder notes to it is strange. The accent is so strange to me it takes me aback to hear a new accent. The tone of the speaker's voice is a bumpy calm one, alternating smooth sounds with with hard sound bumps along the winding road of the prologue. The hard sounds help me decode they text because they match up to the current English language. Overall it is an interesting experience that helps me dive deeper into the understanding of the English language.
Ashleigh Korona

Ashleigh Korona said...

C4. During the medieval times, which is when the Canterbury Tales was written, the Catholic church ruled all of Europe and beyond. They tried to display themselves as righteous and always right, but in reality it is one of the most corrupt institutions in history. The Pardon and his tale personifies the corruptness of the medieval Catholic church.
The Pardoner's tale is laid with irony, with the tale and outside of it. This character is portrayed to one in the prologue as a man of religion, but at the same time he sells pardons from the church which is one of the many terrible things the medieval church did. This man of religion tells one his tale of drunkenness, gambling and other acts that go against church teachings. He goes on associating these sins with religious characters, here is a man that has committed his life to the church talking against famous religious ideals, such a strange picture of irony. At the end of the tale, as the reader soaks in the irony with in the tale, one can not help picturing this little blonde priest sitting there with his hands folded in his lap, beaming with a humble amused smile on his face. The irony of it all just makes it laughable, the irony almost compliments each other in a way that has some kind of comical relief to it.
Although it may be comical, the tale is told in all seriousness by Chaucer. One is sure he meant for it to be enjoyed by the reader as such, but it is still told in a tone that is full of seriousness, as if it were told by the Pardoner himself. On the counter side of this though, the description of the Pardoner given to one in the prologue is set in a more mocking tone. By viewing these two sections about the Pardon in The Canterbury Tales, one can conclude that Chaucer does hold religion somewhat highly, in those days everyone had loyalty to the Christian faith, but one can also conclude that Chaucer does believe that the church is lacking in morals. The church shows that they have very few morals because they send Pardoners out on missions to lie to the people and steal their money. Pardons were sold by the church to the people saying that by buying these pardons they were cleared of all sins because the Pope has the power to erase sins. In those days people believed what holy Rome told them with out question, for fear they would be killed, but people like Chaucer took a stand by writing the truth such as with the Pardoner's tale, showing the church trying to make a quick buck .
The Pardoner's tale teaches one about the morals of the corrupt medieval church and the terrible things they did to the poor people of Europe through witty irony. The layers of irony that can be associated with the Pardoner can be found comical by the reader in an enjoyable sort of way, bringing Chaucer's moral of the Pardon across to his audience.

Ashleigh Korona

Ashleigh Korona said...

C5.
1. The piece entitled, “The Garden of Earthly Delights” by Bosch, depicts his interpretation of the stages of the human world. The first panel depicts Adam and Eve in the garden surrounded with animals, beautiful nature, and possibly God. The second panel can be said to be the present stage of human existence with many people, some animals, and some evil. The right panel can be determined as the “future” of the humans, showing evil rampaging and human suffering. Bosch is showing one where humans started, what has become of the human race and what will become the humans if they continue to indulge in evil as they often do, polluting the world that at one time was innocent.
2. Pardoner: If you buy my pardons you can prevent the bad future from coming.
3. Chaucer: The only one who can promise us that is God himself.
4. P: You should be afraid of the future, just look at all the sins you and countless other have committed. This will certainly not please God. To please him you must buy my indulgences.
5. C: You are lying to me, you saucy wench.
6. P: Ahh! You speak in such fowl language! God will not be pleased.
7. C: It is true that humans have brought evil into the world, Adam and Eve made sure of this, but not all of us harbor such evil.
8. P: Alas! I will not save you with my power of pardons, instead the church forced you to carry on with all of your sins.
9. C: I am very upset about not gaining the legendary paper signed by the Bishop, I can feel the burn already. Ashleigh Korona

Anonymous said...

Brent Condon
Beowulf
B1. A caesura is a break in a line of poetry that clarifies the previous part of the poem. An example of a caesura from Beowulf would be, “till one began to fashion evils, that field of hell” (Beowulf 8). The comma between evils and that is a caesura; it creates a pause while reading the poem. The Caesura also acts as a way of clarifying the writer by saying that the people fashioning evil caused the creation of the field of hell. While reading Beowulf aloud it is apparent that the caesura leaves a natural pause in the poem.

Anonymous said...

Brent Condon
B2. A kenning in a poem is a word that is used to represent a thing that otherwise would not have a word to represent it. Beowulf used many different kennings because of the need to use words that didn’t exist during the time period. A whale-path was used by the writer to describe the sea because they did not have a word to describe it while the story was being told. Whales are some of the biggest creatures of the sea, the Anglo- Saxon talk a lot of monsters a whale would appear to be a monster. To them it would appear that the whales ruled the sea so they called it a whale path. Breaker of rings is also used to cover the meaning of the word leader or chieftain, this is because the king would break rings to give gold as a reward to his warriors. God’s beacon is a phrase used to take the meaning of the sun, this is indicated when they said it was the light from the east. Kennings were necessary for the people of that time period to describe words that they had not named.

Anonymous said...

Brent Condon
B3. Beowulf shows many different aspects of the Anglo- Saxon culture along with the influence of Christianity. Anglo- Saxon was a barbaric culture of many different tribes that had a strong belief in the need for war. The Anglo- Saxon’s lust for battle was also shown in Beowulf with many different scenes indicating blood and honor such as, “With armor clashing and gear of battle: God they thanked” (Beowulf 11). The mention of God is also an indication of the Christian influence reaching the Anglo- Saxon tribes; this is referred to multiple times in the epic by words such as Lord and God. This influence was brought by Roman missionaries who tried to convert the Anglo-Saxons and were somewhat successful in altering some of their beliefs. They also asked for God’s protection, “’Father Almighty in grace and mercy guard you well’” (Beowulf 14). This shows the Christian influence at its best, they combined their war based culture with a sense of God. Another strong indication of the fusion of the two cultures is shown by, “On the kin of Cain was the killing avenged” (Beowulf 8). Cain is a part of the Old Testament which shows the influence of Christianity, the aspect of vengeance is also a huge part of the Anglo- Saxon culture. It is considered one of the biggest disgraces to not avenge a fallen family member. The writing combines the two cultures into the same phrase giving them a new perspective on stories from the Christian religion. Beowulf gives a good indication of how Christian beliefs mixed with the Anglo- Saxon culture.

Anonymous said...

Brent Condon
The Canterbury Tales
C1. The merchant has a forked beard with a motley gown. He rides a horse going from Middleburg to Orwel in order to trade goods. He also wore a beaver hat and had boots that he wore elegantly. The merchant is also good at talking to people and only talks about good things he has done not the bad. He was not very memorable and was in debt but never mentioned it. He does not have enough money to actually trade with people so he needs to take loans and bargain.
The squire is the son of the knight and is around twenty years of age. He has curly hair and is about average height. He wears a short gown and can ride a horse. The squire is also capable of singing, writing, sketching, and dancing. He is honorable and chivalrous which gives him many qualities associated with a knight. He also shows respect for his father.
The plowman is the miller’s brother and has a strong faith. He is not greedy like the miller and often works for free and sells his possessions in order to pay the taxes. He is the opposite of his brother who often tries to scam people and steal corn. Plowman believes that he is obliged to help the poor.
C2. Rapper 1- The first rapper is wearing a red Dr. Pepper shirt with sunglasses. He has brown hair and also a ring on his left hand.
Rapper 2- The second rapper is wearing a black shirt that says Japanese club 2005 and also has a hat that’s blue and white.
Rapper 3- The last rapper is bald and sometimes is seen wearing a white hat. He has a collared shirt that is has brown, tan and white stripes.

Anonymous said...

C3. The audio helps us to understand how to read the passage by showing the pronunciation of each word. The passage was written with words that directly sound the same way that they were spoken back then. We find these words to be unfamiliar because of the letters that are combined in unfamiliar ways. The narrator is speaking in a heavy British accent which is where this story originated. The narrator also shows how the words flow well with each other.
C4. The Pardoner’s tale is an example of irony used by Chaucer in The Canterbury Tales. Pardoners were people in medieval time who sold pardons that freed people from their sins. The money earned by pardoners was usually used for living expenses and religious funding. The Pardoner is ironic in the sense that he is only after money for his own selfishness. The Pardoner is ironic in the same way as the three people in his story are ironic.
The irony behind the Pardoner’s greed is similar to the irony of the greed of the three people who find the treasure. At the beginning they were trying to bring justice to a dead person by finding the killer, Death. This is a noble goal similar to how a Pardoner should act, by pardoning small crimes that weigh against a person’s conscience and using that money to fund their religion. However, when gold is involved they begin to turn on each other and go as far as murder, the ultimate sin, in order to obtain a higher amount of money. Even though they started their journey to bring justice to someone who was murdered they ended up becoming the thing they hated the most, they also used religion in order to ease the magnitude of what they planned. The irony is similar to how the Pardoner works, he became somewhat of a thief and began to only care about money and would pardon anyone for the right price. Chaucer is trying to make a point by comparing those people with the Pardoner by saying they are not that different.
From the story we can conclude the Chaucer is against the idea of a pardoner. He believes that a pardoner is close to crossing the line of being a sinner by saying that people are forgiven for their crimes in place of God for money. He made this part of the story ironic because he thinks that the aspect of a pardoner is ironic, what’s the point of having a law if you will just be forgiven for money. It is also ironic because religions usually say that people should not take more than they need. Chaucer is trying to say that real life pardoners are ironic just like the Pardoner.

Anonymous said...

C5A. The scene to the left is the story of Adam and Eve with the apple and God. This shows the creation of the world from a religious standpoint, the world looks more tranquil and only had a few humans with many different animals who are living peacefully. This could mean that the left represents heaven or the past. The middle shows a chaotic scene of mostly humans with animals either being used by the humans or nonexistent. The people in the middle seem to be happy and they are not really paying attention to the world around them. A lot of fruits can be seen in this painting and as the apple represents temptation these fruits can also represent the same thing. The scene could be using fruits as describing how people sin. This could mean that the middle scene is supposed to represent the mortal plain, being alive, or it could represent the present. The last scene on the right is a much darker atmosphere. The people are not really in control of their own will and the only things that seem to be free are more demonic creatures. Their also appears to be lakes of blood in the background although this could simply be the reflection of fire on the lake. Many parts of the body are seen separated from the rest of the body; an example would be the demonic bird creature eating a human’s leg. This seen of chaos is either representative of the future, although a very pessimistic one, or hell. It would make sense if it was representative of the afterlife as Dante’s works were written only around two hundred years before this painting.
B. left Pardoner: The left scene shows the scene prior to Eve being tempted by the serpent and eating the apple. This apple gave them the knowledge of all things including evil; this caused the possibility of sinning to be brought. This is the reason why I pardon people’s sins because people were given the knowledge by this deed. God forgives people who work to repent their sins which is why I require gold for my service.
Chaucer: You are just using religion as an excuse to take money from people. Just because people have the knowledge of how to do something does not mean they cannot stop themselves from sinning. This scene is actually showing how people try to find excuses for their own problems. The apple was not to blame it was themselves.
Middle Pardoner: The middle shows how people are tempted into sinning. If these people were not pardoned then most people would live their lives with a terrible conscience, this is why they must work to earn enough gold to pay for their sins to be pardoned. After all it can also be considered the temptations fault for the sin in the first place.
Chaucer: These people are not sinning they simply are living their lives. You get money by considering everything a sin and scaring people into paying you to get rid of them. This scene clearly shows the present and how the world is full of chaos and irony. How can you clear sins when you also sin.
Right Pardoner: The right is a picture of hell and what happens when someone does not have their sins pardoned. It shows they did not work to try to have their sins forgiven, the gold is just a symbol of the work we put into being forgiven. People are tortured physically and mentally by their guilt for their crimes by those demons. The blood clearly is there to remind the sinners of their crimes.
Chaucer: Even after having their sins pardoned they will still go to hell; it’s God’s decision not yours. This scene is not hell; this is the chaos of the future. This is caused by the greed of people who are willing to do anything for self-gain. Those things you call demons are actually just humans, eating humans in this scene is symbolic of killing a human to feed your own greed. The blood is the people who died because they did not betray others before they were betrayed. These demons may also represent the leaders of society who are willing to throw away lives for their own benefits.

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